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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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Any photon energy left over after the mass creation, is divided randomly between the electron and positron. The energy lost by the original photon is transferred to the target electron, which leaves its parent atom and itself becomes an ionizing particle. As before, the amount of energy transferred depends on whether the photon collides almost "head on" with the electron, or merely strikes a glancing blow, causing a small change in the photon's direction. e. outer shell electrons of low-Z targets.

This effect is known as "source selfabsorption". detector detector 1000 cpm 250 cpm Material near the detector may actually increase the count rate by scattering (reflecting) radiation back into the detector that might otherwise have missed it. source * 10 em 20 em If we substitute a person for the detector in the above example we can see that the inverse square law can be a powerful ally in any attempt to reduce radiation exposure. On the other hand, if we have a case of skin contamination, for example, it can be an equally powerful enemy.

The pancake probe usually has a thin (Mylar) window to permit passage of charged particles, and can be used to detect surface contamination over a wider area than the other probes. M. probes in general have a lower sensitivity to gamma rays but a relatively high sensitivity to beta particles. M. counter is a popular, and sometimes the only, radiation survey instrument in radionuclide labs, and it has been adapted to read exposure as well as counts per minute. M. 3) is the amount of ionization produced in air by photons.

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