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By Henning Andersen (Ed.)

This number of papers consolidates the statement that linguistic swap in most cases is actualized step-by-step: any structural innovation being brought, accredited, and generalized, through the years, in a single grammatical surroundings after one other, in a development that may be understood through connection with the markedness values and the rating of the conditioning gains. The advent to the quantity and a bankruptcy by way of Henning Andersen make clear the theoretical bases for this commentary, that's exemplified and mentioned in separate chapters through Kristin Bakken, Alexander Bergs and Dieter Stein, Vit Bubenik, Ulrich Busse, Marianne Mithun, Lene Schøsler, and John Charles Smith within the mild of knowledge from the histories of Norwegian, English, Hindi, Northern Iroquoian, and Romance. a last bankruptcy by way of Michael Shapiro provides a philosophical viewpoint. The papers have been first provided in a workshop on “Actualization styles in Linguistic swap” on the XIV foreign convention on old Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C. in 1999.

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Additional resources for Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999

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4 Analysis This is unquestionably a topic that calls for the clear distinction between logical and linguistic relations Lyons drew. But rather than Lyons's separation of the two, the topic calls for the use of the language-independent concepts of logic as tools in the analysis of semantic and other relations in grammar. In the 42 HENNING ANDERSEN following I will show that the seemingly paralogical character of linguistic relations—the peculiar fact that the linguistic counterparts of the symmetrical modes of opposition are asymmetrical—reflects a hierarchical order among the modes of opposition of normative logic that may be rooted in a universal strategy applied in the cognition of all such relations.

In reality the general meanings of correlative categories stand in a different relation to each other: if category I indicates the presence of A, category II does not indicate the presence of A, that is, it does not signify whether A is present or not. In comparison with the marked category I, the general meaning of the unmarked category II is limited to the absence of A-signaling [my translation; HA]" ([1932] 1971b:3; see also [1936] 1971b:29-30). )", from which one may infer that "the unmarked form represents both of the terms of the opposition in linguistic consciousness" ([1932] 1971b: 14), Jakobson tries to account for this by adding to the "signalization vs.

For instance duck is both the contradictory opposite of drake and the hypernym of duck and drake, just as lion is both the contradictory opposite of lioness and the hypernym of lion and lioness', similarly, wide serves both as the contrary opposite of narrow and as the generic adjective for the dimension of width, long is the contrary opposite of short as well as the generic adjective for the dimension of length, and so on and so forth. But Lyons's move to establish new, specialized terminology to distinguish the lexical "sense-relations" from the logical modes of opposition is either just a cosmetic cover-up for a reluctance to analyse the "sense-relations" into their constituent logical relations, or it reflects a failure to recognize the need for such an analysis.

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