By Stephen J. Simpson and Jeacuterocircme Casas (Eds.)
This most modern quantity during this sequence includes articles at the body structure of human and animal disorder vectors.
* Contributions from the prime researchers in entomology * Discusses the physiological range in bugs * contains in-depth studies with precious details for quite a few entomology disciplines
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Additional resources for Advances in Insect Physiology
We compared data sets from the two series using a paired t-test. We did not observe any difference in the mean antennal angle between groups of insects exposed to objects displaying the same subtended angle, regardless of the actual distance or size of the source. 14Њ 40 cm 21Њ 27 cm 28Њ 20 cm FIG. 8 Experimental conditions for testing the relationships between the position of the antennae (antennal angle) and the size and distance of the thermal source. In a first series of experiments, a square (10 Â 10 cm) plate heated to 34 C was placed at 20, 27 or 40 cm, at solid angles of 14 , 21 and 28 subtended by the insect position (open-loop conditions).
Positive values in (A) and (C) correspond to the left antenna and negative values correspond to the right antenna. In (B) and (D), positive values correspond to angles above the horizontal plane and negative values correspond to angles below the horizontal plane. During both phases, antennae are moved in coordination (modified from Flores and Lazzari, 1996). 001 N = 486 −60 −70 30 35 40 45 50 55 Left antenna 60 65 70 FIG. 7 Coordination of the movement of both antennae during stopping and walking periods of a haematophagous bug approaching a thermal source.
Antennal movements occur when insects are confronted with a source of stimuli. For example, kissing bugs, T. infestans and R. prolixus display typical antennal movements when exposed to a heat source (Wigglesworth and Gillet, 1934a; Flores and Lazzari, 1996). These movements differ depending on whether the insect is walking or standing during its approach to the source. During the standing phase, antennae move synchronously and in a saccadic fashion, across wide angles; when walking, both antennae are kept at a constant angle in the horizontal plane, moving smoothly up and down in the vertical plane (Flores and Lazzari, 1996).