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By Edited by Maria Luisa Garcia Lecumberri Edited by Maria Del Pilar Garcia Mayo

Addressing concerns that are severe for language making plans, this can be an summary of analysis at the age consider overseas language studying. It provides learn on overseas language studying in bilingual groups in formal guideline settings targeting syntax, phonology, writing, and extra.

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Additional info for Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language (Second Language Acquisition, 4)

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Such a perspective can certainly encompass the notion that decreasing cerebral plasticity and/or other changes in the brain may play a role but the notion that L2 age effects are exclusively a matter of neurologically predetermination, that they are associated with absolute, welldefined maturational limits and that they are particular to language looks less and less plausible. In other words, the idea of a critical period for language development may well have had its day. -A. and Luc, C. (1999) Enseignement des langues vivantes au CM2.

Sekiyama and Tohkura (1993) suggest that Japanese listeners make comparatively little use of visual information. Auditory–visual integration strategies learned for the perception of L1 are then unlikely to serve the L2 listener equally well. , Ochs & Schieffelin, 1983). Phonological acquisition is patently a social as well as a linguistic undertaking, since accent is a defining factor in social identity (Scherer & Giles, 1979). It is also at the social level that language attitudes and most learning motivations are determined; how much the individual acquirer cares about minimising their foreign accent will depend on social convention and personal predispositions.

While it is important to try and tease out the interacting influences of stimulus and task variables in individual subjects (Jenkins, 1979; Strange, 1992), there is often no way of knowing how far individual differences in performance may be due to individual linguistic histories and how far to other factors in acquirers’ lives. It is therefore not easy to imagine how the popular notion of a ‘good ear’ for languages could be operationalised in research on L2 speech. There is some evidence that a complex variable corresponding to what is commonly termed language aptitude, and constituted by various cognitive abilities and Phonological Acquisition in Multilingualism 33 strategies, can predict some of the attainments of L2 learners in the acquisition of syntax and lexis (Harley & Hart, 1997; Skehan, 1989); but the prediction does not extend to phonology.

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