By Harrell R. Rodgers
This re-creation of yank Poverty in a brand new period of Reform offers a complete exam of the level, explanations, results, and prices of yank poverty approximately ten years after the passage of the non-public accountability and paintings chance Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996. the writer comprises the most up-tp-date to be had demographic, funds, evaluate, and application info to judge the impression of this sweeping laws on federal and country guidelines, in addition to on poverty populations. This revised version takes under consideration the industrial slowdown that happened in 2001 via 2003. It examines the nation judgements approximately easy methods to enforce PRWORA, and the way adjustments have affected the poverty inhabitants and total welfare process. the writer identifies the confident implications of welfare reform in addition to difficulties that has to be addressed. New positive aspects for this version contain an appendix of net resources a state-by-state tables of poverty charges.
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Extra resources for American Poverty In A New Era Of Reform
Family structure is also a very important predictor of poverty among black children. The poverty rate for black female-headed families with children exceeded 50 percent in every year between 1970 and 1999. 5 percent in 2002 (Bureau of the Census, 2003a, 82). By comparison, the poverty rate for black married-couple families with children is much lower and 38 CHAPTER 3 has generally declined over the last twenty years. 5 percent, less than a fourth of the rate for single-mother families. In 2002 the median income of black married-couple families was $51,514, while the median income of black mother-only families was only $20,894 (Bureau of the Census, 2004c, Historical Tables, table F-7B).
Female Employment Another reason often suggested for increased rates of divorce and births to unmarried women is the independence women increasingly enjoy because of their careers and independent incomes. Over the last thirty years women have greatly increased their percentage of all college graduates and their role in the job market. 5). In 2002, women workers were 47 percent of all wage and salary income recipients, up from 32 percent in 1947. While more adult women are employed, they are less likely than men to be full-time year-round employ- 46 CHAPTER 3 ees.
6 percent). However, the story varies by race and ethnicity. 13 Percentage of All Children Living in Families With a Never-Married Female Head, by Race, 1960–2002 All Races White Black Hispanic 40 35 Black 30 Percent 25 20 15 Hispanic 10 All Races 5 White 0 1960 1970 1975 1980 1982 1984 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year Source: Bureau of the Census, “Marital Status and Living Arrangements,” Current Population Reports, various years. Data for 1960 from “Persons by Family Characteristics,” PC(2), 4B.