Download An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge PDF

By N. E. Collinge

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its examine and its history
* entire indexes of themes and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of knowledge on all elements of language is a needs to for all libraries in greater schooling, faculties and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has an outstanding bibliography. furthermore, there are complete indexes of subject matters and technical phrases and names. hugely advised for all university and normal public libraries.' - Choice
`This very important ebook is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and techniques to, language, with beneficiant references to extra specified assets. every one bankruptcy has a great bibliography.' - Language International
`A entire advisor ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is usually recommended to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful reduction ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a good task ... there are nearly no parts of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's solid signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, occasions greater schooling complement

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Extra resources for An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference)

Sample text

2 above), the phonological ‘markers’ for speech may be genuinely different across speakers. (b) Yachts must pass outside the markers in every case, on pain of disqualification, whereas there is no such requirement in speech. In careful speech it is quite often the case that the prescription is followed closely, but, in informal and colloquial speech, the phonetic ‘course steered’ may often ‘cut off corners’, make merely token gestures towards the ‘markers’, or even ignore them completely. The only requirement is that, on the basis of the ‘course steered’ by the speaker, the hearer can guess what ‘markers’ the speaker has in mind.

2 above). In certain other languages, the principles for morphemic division differ from those for syllabic division even more strikingly than they do in English. Many major lexical items (nouns, verbs and adjectives) in Iraqi Arabic split morphemically into a root, consisting of the consonants, and affixes, one of which consists of a vowel pattern. Thus /keteb/ ‘he wrote’ is /k-tb/ ‘write’ plus a vowel pattern /-e-e-/ signalling past tense; /jiktab/ ‘he writes’ is the same root, plus a prefix /ji-/ signalling ‘he’ in this form of the verb, and a vowel pattern /-o-a-/ signalling non-past tense (o indicates no vowel at this position).

This results in what is known as a MORPHOPHONEMIC transcription and is often indicated by the use of braces: {…}. For example, the verbs feel, deal and kneel contain an /i:/ which alternates with /e/ in the formation of the past tense and the past participle (see section 3 above), and might therefore be transcribed as {f i:~e l) and {d i:~e l} and {n i:~e l} respectively; the notation {i:~e) indicates that the vowel of the stem is sometimes /i:/ and sometimes /e/, depending on the context in which the stem finds itself.

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