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By Gary McMahon

"Mining exploration funding within the Latin American and Caribbean area has elevated one hundred thirty percentage within the final 5 years, a determine which raises to 500 percentage, if Chile is excluded." Governments have made over mining laws to let inner most funding whereas changing into extra delicate to environmental components. In mild of this laws, this file examines the environmental results of artisanal, small, and medium mines in 3 Latin American international locations: Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. 4 of an important parts to be thought of are: • The age of the mine • administration of tailings • The heterogeneity of the artisanal and small mine sectors • The expanding have to take cultural issues into consideration within the determination making method. The paper includes result of the reports at the quite a few mining sectors, process and coverage ideas, and kingdom learn summaries.

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Extra resources for An environmental study of artisanal, small, and medium mining in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru, Volumes 23-429

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8'14'098dc21 99-18385 CIP Page iii Contents Foreword v Abstract vii Acknowledgments viii Abbreviations and Acronyms ix 1. Introduction 1 2. The Medium Mining Sector and the Environment 3 3. Artisanal and Small Mines and the Environment 9 4. A Strategy for Artisanal, Small, and Medium Mining in Bolivia, Chile and Peru 15 A. For medium and large mines, the age of the mine is more important than the size 15 B. The management of tailings should be opened up to market mechanisms 16 C. Artisanal and small mines form a very heterogeneous group 16 D.

6. The expected lifespan of the mine and related amortization of an environmental investment is an ongoing problem with many medium-sized mines as investment decisions are typically made on the basis of just four years of proven reserves. Page 5 An indirect solution to environmental problems associated with tailings is resort to the courts by affected citizens. This has already occurred in both Chile and Peru. Of course, the success of such actions depends on well-defined and workable legislation, as well as the ability of companies to pay damages or compensation.

Once again the problem of smelters is really a problem of the age of the equipment rather than the size of the associated mines. In Chile, institutional changes with respect to the role and responsibilities of ENAMI could also help reduce air pollution. The overall conclusion of the study is that the medium mining sector is not very different from the large mining sector and, accordingly, should receive similar treatment with respect to environmental considerations. In addition, the number of firms in the MMS in the three countries is not so large as to make monitoring difficult or prohibitively expensive.

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