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By William B. Griffen

Apaches at conflict and Peace is the tale of the Chiricahua Apaches at the northern frontier of recent Spain from 1750 to 1858, specifically these in the quarter of the Janos presidio in northwestern Chihuahua. utilizing formerly untapped files in Spain, Mexico, and the us, William Griffen relates how Apache raids and different hostilities have been the norm till Bernardo do Galvez, viceroy of recent Spain, inspired the Apaches to settle close to presidios. through 1790 a few Apaches have been in place of dwelling at Janos, and intermittent classes of peace and clash ensued until eventually Mexican independence introduced extra radical adjustments in Indian coverage (such because the nation of Sonora’s provide of bounties for Indian scalps). Griffen explores problems with altering Indian coverage, Indian-Mexican relatives, and the access of the U.S. onto the scene after its invasion of Mexico.

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16 A dire breach of ethical conduct was treason to one's own group. A traitor was forever distrusted and sometimes killed or banished, a punishment in many ways worse than death. 17 Thus employment of Apaches against Apaches set up many tensions and was one of the techniques of divide and conquer that Spaniards and Mexicans used in their efforts to control the frontier. Relationships between males and females were strictly controlled and from adolescence on the separation of the sexes was virtually absolute.

When surprised by Spanish or Mexican forces Apaches kept cool heads and always displayed the utmost bravery and disregard for danger. '' 28 But Apache warriors were not fools, and if they saw the tide turning against them they followed the maxim that judgment was the better part of valor and disappeared from battle as fast as they had appeared. Under assault they were extremely efficient, rapidly breaking camp with men and women cooperating to move babies, food, and possessions. They made forced marches on foot or horseback until they could shake their pursuers and reach safety.

2 (summer 1991): 151-99. Page xii 5. José Cortés, Views from the Apache Frontier: Report on the Northern Provinces of New Spain, 1799, ed. Elizabeth A. H. John and John Wheat (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989). 6. William B. Griffen, "Problems in the Study of Apaches and Other Indians in Chihuahua and Southern New Mexico during the Spanish and Mexican Periods," The Kiva 50, nos. 2-3 (Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society, 1985): 139-51. 7. William B. Griffen, "Southern Apaches: Midway to Dependency, Some Suggestions for Research" (paper presented at the University of Texas at El Paso as part of the proceedings of the conference on Apaches held at Truth or Consequences, New Mexico, November 9-10, 1990).

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