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Additional resources for Arabic Dialectology: in Honour of Clive Holes on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday (Studies in Semitic Languages and Linguistics, V. 53)

Example text

Abdel-Jawad 1981:279, 282). ) vs. ), which implies that the reflexes of *k in this case are phonetically unconditioned. from qǝltu to gǝlǝt 27 have had the same uniform -ki form as JB and CB, but the change to the gǝlǝt forms was not purely phonetic in that case either. 4. , sǝmač ‘fish’, sǝma ‘sky’, ğǝbal ‘mountain’; ḅuṣal ‘onions’, gumar ‘moon’, kuḅar ‘to grow up’ (Blanc 1964:40). Because this rule is operative in verbs as well, the sedentary-type perfect base patterns CaCaC and CiCiC10 in Form I of the triradical strong verb have been transformed into CiCaC, with a phonetically-conditioned allomorph CuCaC: kitab ‘to write’, giṭaʿ ‘to cut’, buram ‘to twist’; šǝrab ‘to drink’, nǝzal ‘to descend’, wugaʿ ‘to fall’.

Yaqut’s report from 1226 is by and large in accordance with Ibn Jubayr’s description. According to these reports, Western Baghdad was a series of isolated quarters each with a wall and separated by waste land of ruins. The situation grew still worse in the 1250s when several floods ruined parts of the city (Duri 1960:902). In these circumstances the number of the victims of the 1258 massacre must have been essentially smaller than reported; according to Duri it “probably exceeded a hundred thousand”.

It is not necessary to assume that the Bedouin speech as such, and to all speakers, was prestigious, but as pointed out by Miller, “[i]n case of inter-dialectal contact within the city, the levelling/koineization process is not systematically, and at all linguistic levels, in favour of the pre-existing urban dialect” (Miller 2004:180, 194, 197; Behnstedt & Woidich 2005:47). Over time, also a few morphological Bedouin traits such as personal pronouns, the adverb hnā, and certain personal morphemes in the perfect, were adopted.

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