By Angus Maddison
This publication was once first released in 1971.
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Additional info for Asia: Class Structure and Economic Growth: India and Pakistan Since the Moghuls
Because higher education was in English, there was no official effort to translate Western literature into the vernacular, nor was there any standardization of Indian scripts whose variety is a major barrier to multilingualism amongst educated Indians. Primary education was not taken very seriously as a government obligation and was financed largely by the weak local authorities. As a result, the great mass of the population had no access to education and, at independence in 1947, 88 per cent were illiterate.
The beneficiaries of these new rights varied in different parts of India. The top layer of Moghul property, the jagir, was abolished (except in the autonomous princely states), and the bulk of the old warlord aristocracy was dispossessed. Their previous income from land revenue, and that of the Moghul state, was now appropriated by the British as land tax. e. 2 All zamindars in these areas now had hereditary status,3 so long as they paid their land taxes, and their judicial and administrative functions disappeared.
The typical zamindari estate at the end of British rule seems to have been very different from that at the end of the eighteenth century. In Bengal the total 'number of landowners which did not exceed 100 in the beginning of Hasting's administration in 1772, rose in the course of a century to 154,200'. 2 Misra attributes this fall in the average size of zamindari properties to the fact that they could be inherited or sold freely, whereas the Moghul state wanted to keep the number small because zamindars had administrative functions under the Moghul Empire.