By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
In 1974 while I released my booklet, organic Mechanism of Attachment, now not many pages have been required to document at the attachment units of insect cuticles. As in so much fields of analysis, our wisdom in this particular topic has easily exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the current day point of our wisdom, to which he has for my part contributed lots, and a examine workforce engaged on organic microtribology has steadily built, additionally. With smooth equipment of size it really is attainable to go into the constitution – functionality courting even more deeply, even right down to a molecular point, which used to be impossible and a part a long time in the past. it's a popular undeniable fact that, in biology, the extra refined the measuring technique, the larger the success of organic basic examine, and its ensuing proof. Our wisdom continues to be at a definite point until eventually new equipment once again let a ahead jump. organic wisdom develops within the type of a stepped curve instead of linear, as mirrored within the experiences conducted at the attachment units of insect cuticles.
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Additional info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Ommatidia grating are anti-reflective structures on the eyes of insects, especially those which are nocturnally active (Fig. 8 B). , 1998). Such a grating is particularly useful on a curved corneal surface, as it would increase the transmission of incident light through the cornea, compared with a smooth surface. A comparable anti-reflector is employed on solar absorbers. 0 are better protected from contamination than smooth surfaces. A similar self-cleaning function can also be suggested for ommatidia grating.
1 Hooking to the substratum Terrestrial locomotion is always connected with the attachment of extremities to the substratum. The most common example of the hook-like attachment device is the tarsal claw, which is used to interlock with surface texture during locomotion. Prolegs of butterfly caterpillars bear hooks, or crochets, surrounding the proleg sucker. These hooks are acanthae, because they originate from single epidermal cells (Barbier, 1985). They are not homologous to imaginal claws, but serve a similar function.
The labellum of a fly (Brachycera, Diptera) bears so-called pseudotrachea (Gracham-Smith, 1930; Dethier, 1976; Zaytsev, 1984; Elzinga and Broce, 1986; Driscoll and Condon, 1994), which are able to change the diameter of the filtration sieve, depending on the size of particles in the food (Fig. 8 F). Labellum and pseudotrachea are driven by muscles, resilin springs, and hydraulic pressure. Outgrowths of the pseudotrachea have a complex material design. 8 Food grinding Cuticular protuberances that grind food items occur not only in the insect mouth-parts, but also in one part of the insect digestive system, called proventriculus (Fig.