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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Which came first ? DNA needs enzymes(DNA polymerase and associated enzymes) to replicate, but the enzymes are encoded by DNA. DNA needs protection of the cell wall, but the cell wall is also encoded by the DNA. The answer is that neither came first for all are required in DNAbased life. These fundamental components form an irreducibly complex system in which all components must have been present from the start. 48 Origin of DNA 49 A Brief History of Origin of Life 5. DNA/Protein World:  The transcription translation process is the means by which the information in the DNA code creates protein (protein synthesis).

2000). 1),2006 55 Evolution of cellular organization Summing up   1. 2. 3. Cellular evolution is not about evolving genomes; it is about evolving cellular design. The simplest known single-celled life forms contain over 400 genes, and are much more complex than any hypothetical pre-RNA world. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT/LGT), which, as we shall see, is the essence of cellular evolution. The second is the nature of the cellular translation apparatus, for the evolutions of translation and cellular organization are part and parcel of one another.

DNA and RNA sequencing techniques are considered to give the most meaningful phylogenies. 57 Brief history of molecular phylogenetics           1900s Immunochemical studies: cross-reactions stronger for closely related organisms Nuttall (1902) - apes are closest relatives to humans 1960s - 1970s Protein sequencing methods, electrophoresis, DNA hybridization and PCR contributed to a boom in molecular phylogeny late 1970s to present Discoveries using molecular phylogeny: Endosymbiosis - Margulis, 1978 Divergence of phyla and kingdom - Woese, 1987 Many Tree of Life projects completed or underway Han Chuan Ong 58 Taxonomy vs Phylogeny    Taxonomy is traditionaly phenotypic.

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