Download Biological Control of Insect Pests Using Egg Parasitoids by S. Sithanantham, Chandish R. Ballal, S.K. Jalali, N PDF

By S. Sithanantham, Chandish R. Ballal, S.K. Jalali, N Bakthavatsalam

The subject of the booklet is very suitable to the present emphasis on atmosphere conservation, with concentrate on local biodiversity conservation in agro-ecosystems. the present impetus being given to natural farming and export orientated agri-hortculture within the kingdom demands entry to appropriate medical wisdom base one of the stakeholders. learn on organic pest keep watch over is greater than a century previous in India. Egg parasitoids, that are customarily tiny wasps, led by means of the relations Trichogrammatidae, are the main generally applied typical enemies for organic regulate globally. Over thirty international locations are utilizing those bioagents to guard over 10 million hectares of agricultural and forestry vegetation from many vital insect pests. The booklet includes 18 chapters, that are prepared in continuum, starting with simple points of data and finishing of their usage pursuits. The chapters hide greatly 4 components: bio-diversity and average incidence of egg parasitoids, behaviour and edition of egg parasitoids, mass creation and secure use of egg parasitoids and utilisation of egg parasitoids in numerous crop ecosystems. a number of the chapters cater to the desires of discipline-wise replace at the present R&D scenario-like insect taxonomy, biotechnology, mass-production and qc of the objective organisms - egg-parasitoids, that are precious for laboratory scientists/researchers. There also are chapters dedicated to wisdom prestige and scope for usage of egg parasitoids in numerous objective plants, which cater to standards of box entomologists and extensionists to be used of their projects of guiding farmers/local publications. The ebook is diversified in strategy, approach, constitution and content material and guarantees holistic insurance of the subject. The chapters are written through lively and skilled employees in numerous vegetation and facets and co-edited by way of 4 very skilled specialists who've over 3 a long time R&D adventure within the topic. the entire authors have uniformly focussed on complete literature research and significant identity of data gaps for destiny R&D, hence the e-book is novel in outlook, up to date in content material and accomplished in insurance of issues. This ebook may be valuable for supplementary analyzing for MSc Agriculture and PhD Agriculture scholars, in addition to MSc/PhD learn scholars in Zoology/Environmental Biology, who're specialising in Entomology. it is going to additionally function a really worthwhile reference publication for researchers around the world, although concentration can be there on Indian paintings. It addresses the certain info wishes of scholars and college, along with practitioners and extensionists within the Australasia and Africa areas and hence no longer constrained to the R&D wisdom generated in built countries.

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As many of us know, ‘brasiliensis’ is a thelytokous species (or form) imported into India first by the Indian Station of Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Bangalore, in the 1960s (where the first author (HN) was working for 23 years commencing from 1958). It was however not clear whether this thelytoky is Wolbachia induced or otherwise. The former seemed to be more likely since with higher temperature small numbers of males used to be produced. The above authors’ statement having crossed using possibly the rare males of this species with pretiosum, which is arrhenotokous, suggested possible compatibility of the two.

Morphologically, the 11 species and a subspecies have been shown under two major groups (Nagaraja 1973a, b, 1978a, b; Nagarkatti and Nagaraja 1977) and four minor groups at r-0 level using numerical taxonomy and a dendrogram. In addition, Yousuf and Hassan (2006) described a new species from central India. The following characters were used for the taxonomic study (Nagaraja 1973a, b). Male Antenna (Fig. 1b) The male antenna has a five-segmented flagellum apart from two ring segments, two funicular and three club segments.

It is interesting to note the results of crosses between T. japonicum of Indian and Philippine strains with T. pallidiventris, which is evidently a ecological homologue with the former strain of T. japonicum, both probably are diverging in the process of sympatric speciation. With Indian strain T. pallidiventris showed marked resistance against gene exchange, while with the Philippine population, the resistance was less marked since a few females were also produced. This could be a case within the limits of ‘Character Displacement’ as enunciated by Brown and Wilson (1956), who observed that in two species of ants, each showed strong discreet traits, where they are sympatric and less so where they are allopatric.

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