By Dr. Anthony C. Neville (auth.)
Mention the phrases 'arthropod cuticle' to so much biologists and so they frequently impress a glazed expression. this is why the cuticle is usually considered as an inert substance. it really is was hoping that this e-book will dispel this fallacy. The research of cuticle in its right context now contains some of the wider elements of biology that are presently fashionable (e. g. how a hormone like ecdyson induces a particular enzyme like dopa decarboxylase; the unsolved significant issue of phone gradient and polarity; the involvement of cyclic AMP in hormonal mechanisms; the additional mobile keep watch over of cuticular enzymes, of the mechanical right ties of cuticle structural proteins, and of the orientation of fibrous molecules; and the relation of chromosome puffing to the synthesis of particular proteins). reports on cuticle call for a number of concepts, and examples of the subsequent are illustrated during this e-book (fluorescence, section distinction, polariza tion and Nomarski interference microscopy; infrared absorp tion; transmission and scanning electron microscopy; autora diography analyzed via electron microscopy; unfavourable staining within the electron microscope; optical diffraction, excessive attitude X-ray diffraction, low perspective X -ray diffraction and chosen quarter electron diffraction). i'm good acutely aware that the biophysical elements of this booklet are much less incomplete than different elements. A developmental biologist or a biochemist might have additional elaborated different elements ofthe material. just one earlier writer, RICHARDS (1951)hasdevoted a booklet to arthropod cuticle.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Arthropod Cuticle
In transverse section, muscle attachment fibers are slightly elliptical, and they twist at the same rate as the helicoid ally arranged microfibrils which they traverse (see Chapter 5). Hence, oblique sections of the cuticle give crescentic muscle attachment fiber shapes which are arranged in parabolic patterns (Figs. 26-28) like those generated by pore canals (Fig. 31) (NEVILLE, THOMAS, and ZELAZNY, 1969). These patterns are illustrated by LAI-FoOK (1967) and interpreted by CAVENEY (1969). At the point where they insert into the conical hemidesmosomes, the long axes of the elliptical cross sections of the muscle attachment fibres are randomly oriented (Fig.
17) (SMITH, TELFER, and NEVILLE, 1970). Most of our knowledge concerning the deposition zone has come from electron microscopy, and I do not propose here to discuss the many, and often conflicting, observations and speculations resulting from histochemical and staining studies. Mention will be made, however, of the suggestion of SCHMIDT (1956), who thought of the deposition zone as a subcuticle whose function was to glue the epithelium and cuticle together. LOCKE (1961) concluded that his electron microscope study gave an alternative explanation-that the subcuticle represented the innermost layer of the cuticle in the process of formation.
The pore canals are ribbon-like with the ribbon following the orthogonally oriented daily growth layers through the endocuticle. The pore canals can be focused clearly when the ribbon is seen end-on passing through the layers labeled A in which the chitin crystallites are oriented perpendicularly to the plane of section. In the alternating layers labeled B, the chitin is oriented in the plane of section and the ribbons are seen face on and out of focus 24 Figs. 13. Legends see opposite page 25 Clear autoradiographic evidence for intussusception of extra protein between existing proteins was obtained by CONDOULIS and LOCKE (1966), who labeled cuticular proteins being added to the endocuticle of Calpodes ethlius larvae by injection of labeled amino acids into the blood.