By Victor Golla
Nowhere used to be the linguistic range of the hot international extra severe than in California, the place a rare number of village-dwelling peoples spoke seventy-eight at the same time unintelligible languages. This finished illustrated guide, a tremendous synthesis of greater than one hundred fifty years of documentation and learn, stories what we now learn about California's indigenous languages. Victor Golla outlines the elemental structural positive aspects of greater than dozen language kinds, and cites all of the significant assets, either released and unpublished, for the documentation of those languages--from the earliest vocabularies gathered through explorers and missionaries, to the information accumulated through the twentieth-century by means of Alfred Kroeber and his colleagues, and to the extreme paintings of John P. Harrington and C. Hart Merriam. Golla additionally devotes chapters to the function of language in reconstructing prehistory, and to the intertwining of the language and tradition in pre-contact California societies, making this paintings, the 1st of its style, a vital reference on California's amazing Indian languages.
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After visiting outposts along the Columbia and the Willamette, he returned to San Francisco in late December, accompanied by Simpson and Hale. A few days later he and Hale sailed for Monterey, where they boarded a ship bound for Mexico, stopping along the way at Santa Barbara and San Diego. Duflot de Mofras's interest in Indian languages was not great, but he was an astute observer of the social conditions in the postmissi on communities of the period. His published report also includes copies of a few mission documents, including versions of the Pater Noster in Inezefio Chumash, Mutsun and San Francisco Bay Costanoan, and two varieties of Marin Miwok (Duflot de Mofi:as 1844, vol.
Perhaps the most elucidating reply comes from Father President Seiian himself, who writes for San Buenaventura: There are catechisms of Christian doctrine in the language of the neophytes and they are used alternately with the catechism in the Castilian language. They have not the approbation of any bishop for it would not only be difficult but next to impossible to review them in so many and in such strange, barbarous and unknown dialects as are to be found in this country and of which there is no grammar or dictionary to aid in the work.
The results differed widely. In some cases, priests made no effort to communicate in anything other than Spanish. Visiting the church at Mission Dolores during the Rwik's visit to San Francisco in 1816, Otto von Kotzebue found several hundred half-naked Indians kneeling, who, though they understand neither Spanish nor Latin, are never permitted after their conversion to absent themselves from mass. As the missionaries do not trouble themselves to learn the language of the Indians, I cannot conceive in what BOX 3.