By Edward A. Allworth
Now in its 3rd version (it used to be first released in 1967 and revised in 1989), this re-creation of Central Asia has been up-to-date to incorporate a brand new preface, a revised and up to date bibliography, and a last bankruptcy that brings the e-book as much as 1994 in contemplating the an important difficulties that stem from a deprivation of sovereign, indigenous management during the last a hundred thirty years. This quantity presents a huge and crucial heritage for knowing what has led as much as the overdue twentieth-century configuration of crucial Asia.
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Extra info for Central Asia: One Hundred Thirty Years of Russian Dominance, A Historical Overview
III (1841), 231. ··Istoriia uzbekskoi SSR vol. I, part 1 (1955), p. 322. Encounter 23 Governmental contacts were then established to promote trade between Central Asia and Russia. Instigated by the London Muscovy Company, the mission of Anthony Jenkinson to Central Asia in 1558-1559 performed commercial functions for the English while carrying out diplomatic duties assigned it by Russia's Ivan IV (the Terrible) (1533-1584). Jenkinson found Astrakhan under the Russians engaged in petty trade, and, haVing caravanned from the Caspian beaches to Urganch and Bukhara on 1,000 camels (he returned that way with 600 of the pack animals), he reported Urganch ruined by civil wars which had driven most traders to other markets.
48 While the Russian pirates from Novgorod were scourging the Volga and paralyzing trade there as well as throughout the Bulgar principality, in Central Asia Timur rose to become the second strong figure since the thirteenth century to affect the entire range of relations, including trade, between the two areas. His main contribution in the economic field was to conquer Bulgar and destroy, between 1388 and 1395, the main trading centers of the Golden Horde, including Urganch, Berke's Saray, Astrakhan, Kaffa in the Crimea, and Azov, plus the northern Caucasus, and thus, in seven years, to knock out all important intermediate market places between Russia and Central Asia.
31 [Blankennagl'), "Putevye zamietki maiora Blankennagelia 0 Khivie v 2tl 30 16 Encounter Khiva and its environs, according to a parish census conducted around 1858, the year of Russia's final, formal, diplomatic mission to the khanates, came to fewer than 18,000 (4,493 households). 32 Khokand was far more populous than Khiva, but the question of size of populations or opposing armies in the battle for Central Asia was not the direct key to victory. Decisive, rather, was the position and availability to the Central Asians of defenses which sufficiently counteracted the effects of the up-to-date heavy weapons which the Russians alone regularly employed.