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By William E. Caplin

This e-book introduces a brand new concept of shape for the research of instrumental song of the classical type that specializes in formal function--how the song works and the place it really is going. development upon rules first complicated by means of Arnold Schoenberg and later constructed through Erwin Ratz, the speculation presents a large set of rules and a entire technique for the research of classical shape, starting from the person rules making up quite a few words of topics to the large-scale association of whole activities. The booklet contains a specific dialogue of ordinary subject matter kinds, considers extra wide formal areas, and at last treats the elemental association of the full-movement shape. The theoretical techniques are illustrated with over 250 annotated musical examples from Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.

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Additional resources for Classical Form: Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven

Example text

Harmonic and tonal stability are created by both the clear establishment of the home- key tonic in the presentation phrase and the cadential confirmation of that key at the end of the continuation. ) The melodic material is unified through the use of motives derived exclusively from the basic idea, and the grouping of this material into two fourmeasure phrases is highly symmetrical. Finally, the constituent functions (presentation, continuation, and cadential) are presented in the most compact and efficient manner possible.

1, mm. 1-2). 7 Beethoven, Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 8 Beethoven, Piano Sonata in F Minor, Op. 2/1, i, 21-48 18 SOME BASIC FORMAL FUNCTIONS The basic idea is neither repeated (as in a presentation phrase) nor juxtaposed with a contrasting idea (in the manner of an antecedent). Rather, it is followed by four measures that display features of continuation function: fragmentation into one-measure units (cf. mm. 26 In measures 15-16, the tonal context is finally clarified when the continuation phrase concludes with a half cadence in the subordinate key of Ab major.

Finally, the lack of a full presentation phrase renders the transition's beginning less solid, and so looser in expression, than the opening of the main theme. With respect to this last point, the absence of a presentation must not be seen to reflect a compositional weakness. An additional statement of the basic idea is hardly necessary in light of its firm establishment in the presentation of the main theme. Likewise, the foregoing observations on functional inefficiency and cadential obscurity are not meant to imply a faulty structure of any kind.

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