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By Michael J. Manton (auth.), Michael Manton, Linda Anne Stevenson (eds.)

Commissioned through the Intergovernmental assembly (IGM) of the Asia-Pacific community for international switch study (APN), this booklet deals an in depth survey of the present prestige of weather switch and weather variability within the Asia-Pacific area, a radical and considerate overview of weather and protection and transparent tips on the easiest paths of weather examine within the future.

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Additional resources for Climate in Asia and the Pacific: Security, Society and Sustainability

Sample text

Decadal variability in the SST field of the Pacific is associated with decadal variability in atmospheric variables, such as sea-level pressure, winds and precipitation (Deser et al. 2004; Burgman et al. 2008). The nature of ENSO has varied considerably over time. The 1976–1977 PDO/IPO climate shift (Trenberth 1990) was associated with marked changes in El Niño evolution (Trenberth and Stepaniak 2001), a shift to generally above-normal SSTs in the eastern and central equatorial Pacific and a tendency towards more prolonged and stronger El Niños.

This transition is accompanied by the southward retreat of the HC core and is well correlated with the weakening of tropical summer Asian monsoons. 2 Pacific Surface climates of the tropical Pacific islands are dominated by the vast surrounding ocean and the large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulations (Streten and Zillman 1984; Terada and Hanzawa 1984). The major atmospheric circulation features include the northeast and southeast trade wind regimes, which originate in the subtropical high pressure belts of each hemisphere where air sinks and dries.

In central Australia, the trends are not statistically significant and also show reversed signs. The magnitude of trends in cool days lies within the range of 0–10 days/decade in most of the Asia-Pacific land areas (Fig. 10). In India (Kothawale et al. 2009) the frequency of hot days and warm nights shows a widespread increase from 1970 to 2005, especially over southern India. Cool days and cold nights have a widespread decrease. Trends in Nepal (Baidya et al. 2008) show an increase in hot days and warm nights.

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