By J. Shore
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Extra resources for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties
1) can of course be regarded as electrolytes, although by hydrophobic interactions they tend to form micelles in concentrated solution and hence may be referred to as colloidal electrolytes. In some respects their levelling action is analogous to that of simple inorganic electrolytes – that is, ionic hydrophobes compete with dye ions of similar charge for sites of opposite charge in the fibre. Electrolytes are used to promote the exhaustion of direct or reactive dyes on cellulosic fibres; they may also be similarly used with vat or sulphur dyes in their leuco forms.
Polycarboxylates may also be added to help prevent incrustations. It should be borne in mind, however, that magnesium is an essential component in most cases of stabilisation in peroxide systems, so any mixture of sequestrants should have minimum binding effect on this metal ion. In the pretreatment and dyeing of synthetic fibres, the aminopolyphosphonates can assist in the removal of oligomers. Some dyes contain a coordinated transition metal as an essential part of their chromogenic structure and this must be left undisturbed by any sequestrant used to complex extraneous metal ions in the system.
2). 2 Micelle formation In water the surfactant molecules orient themselves with their hydrophobes at the centre of the cluster. 2 g/l. At concentrations lower than this the molecules orient themselves only at the interfaces of the solution, and it is this effect which brings about the lowering of surface tension. pmd 495 15/11/02, 15:43 496 THE CHEMISTRY AND PROPERTIES OF SURFACTANTS interfaces become saturated and as the concentration increases micellar clusters of molecules begin to form in the bulk of the solution; there is little further reduction in surface tension beyond the CMC, nor are there changes in the other surfactant properties such as wetting and foaming.