Download Comparative Physiology, Natural Animal Models and Clinical by Michael Alan Singer PDF

By Michael Alan Singer

This e-book describes a unique and new angle to the remedy of human illnesses in line with the examine of ordinary animal versions. A ordinary animal version is outlined as an animal crew or species that possesses a suite of biochemical/physiological features that are average and adaptive for that animal, yet are really irregular for people. for instance, how is it that birds can tolerate blood glucose concentrations which in people are linked to diabetes. The usual animal version resides evidence organic solution to this query is obtainable. via learning typical animal types, we will be able to achieve invaluable insights into the therapy of assorted human scientific issues. masking quite a lot of issues, this e-book describes intimately how scientific scientists can benefit from all of the "research" that nature has already played over billions of years in organic challenge fixing via broad animal layout checking out and choice.

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1997a. Glucose transporters of the glomerulus and the implications for diabetic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 52, Suppl. 60, S91–S99. , 1997b. D-glucose stimulates mesangial cell Glut 1 expression and basal and IGF-1 sensitive glucose uptake in rat mesangial cells. Implications for diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes 46, 1030–1039. , 1982. Glycosylated hemoglobin in human and animal red cells. Role of glucose permeability. Diabetes 31, 743–748. , 2001. Comparative biology of aging in birds: an update. Exper.

In both the mature avian and mammalian retinas, Muller cells express both VEGF and Flk1 forming an autocrine circuit. Given these apparent similarities between avian and mammalian Muller cells, why is Muller cell expression of VEGF in the bird not associated with retinal vascularization? Do the VEGF-Flk1 autocrine circuits in the bird and mammal have similar or dissimilar functions? Muller cells also express the Glut 1 transporter but there are no data as to whether this transporter is upregulated in diabetes.

These results clearly indicate that increased glucose transport activity with an increase in delivery of intracellular glucose is the critical step for enhanced ECM synthesis. Enhanced mesangial cell ECM synthesis would clearly play a critical role in the genesis of diabetic glomerulosclerosis. The role played by a high extracellular glucose concentration is to increase glucose transport activity by inducing an increased expression of the Glut 1 transporter. (b) Juxtaglomerular apparatus The elevated GFR observed in the early stages of diabetes has already been discussed.

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