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By Robert Stalnaker

Robert Stalnaker explores the idea of the context during which speech occurs, its position within the interpretation of what's acknowledged, and within the rationalization of the dynamics of discourse. He distinguishes varied notions of context, however the major concentration is at the thought of context as universal floor, the place the typical flooring is an evolving physique of historical past details that's presumed to be shared via the contributors in a talk. the typical floor is the knowledge that's presupposed by way of audio system and addressees, and a imperative problem of this booklet is with the thought of presupposition, and with the interplay of compositional constitution with discourse dynamics within the rationalization of presuppositional phenomena. Presupposed details contains historical past info either concerning the material of a discourse and in regards to the evolving discourse itself, and in regards to the attitudes of the members within the discourse, together with who and the place they're, and what they agree and disagree approximately. Stalnaker offers a manner of representing self-locating details that is helping to give an explanation for the way it might be shared and communicated, and the way it evolves through the years. He discusses the semantic and pragmatics of conditionals and epistemic modals, and their position in representing contract, confrontation, and the negotiation approximately how a context may still evolve. The publication concludes with a dialogue of the kinfolk among contextualism and semantic relativism.

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It has been widely applied in theoretical computer science and game theory, as well as in epistemology. See Stalnaker 2006 for a general survey of semantics of epistemic logic, and Fagin et al. 1995 for a survey of some applications in computer science. 16 A binary relation R is Euclidian if it satisfies the following condition: for all x, y, and z, if xRy and xRz, then yRz.  COMMON GROUND AND KEEPING SCORE that ϕ, she believes that she believes it, and if she does not believe that ϕ, she believes that she does not believe it.

The answer is that this restriction is no substantive constraint at all, since the general abstract theory puts no limit on what can go in the index. The idea is that the index should include all of the “shiftable” elements. If one wanted to use a Lewisian 15 Kaplan 1989, 510.  THREE NOTIONS OF CONTEXT context-index semantics to account for a language that shifted something that looked a lot like the abstract object that we use to represent context, then all we need to do is to put an object of this kind into the index.

Then someone would have been actual who actually isn’t actual. )20 The subjunctive/indicative contrast plays an essential role in determining when the “actually” gets a rigidifying interpretation. For example, compare 20 Lewis 1986, 94. ” The variation, unlike the original, is a contradiction. The uses of “actually” in Williamson’s (2i) seems to be a nonrigidifying use, and so the triviality of the natural language (2i) does not pose an immediate problem for the possible-worlds analysis of indicative conditionals.

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