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4. Deliberate cutting of the structures during delivery is called episiotomy. pELVIC pERITONEum The triangle has got no obstetric importance. It contains the terminal part of the anal canal with sphincter ani externus, anococcygeal body, ischiorectal fossa, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics. Traced anteriorly, the peritoneum covering the superior surface of the bladder reflects over the anterior surface of the uterus at the level of the internal os. The pouch, so formed, is called uterovesical pouch.

To steady the perineal body. pelvic floor during pregnancy and parturition During pregnancy, levator muscles hypertrophy, become less rigid and more distensible. Due to water retention, it swells up and sags down. In the second stage, the pubovaginalis and puborectalis relax and the levator ani is drawn up over the advancing presenting part in the second stage. Failure of the levator ani to relax at the crucial moment may lead to extensive damage of the pelvic structures. The effect of such a displacement is to elongate the birth canal, which is 19 composed solely of soft parts below the bony outlet.

This sphincter allows the voluntary arrest of urine flow. 4. Although debatable, puborectalis part of levator ani which surrounds the lower-third of the urethra acts as an external sphincter. 5. Superficial perineal muscles, bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus form an accessory external sphincter. Structures: Mucous membrane is lined by transitional epithelium except at the external urethral meatus where it becomes stratified squamous. Submucous coat is vascular. Muscle coat is composed of involuntary muscles and the fibers are arranged in the form of crossed spirals.

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