By Aurel Croissant, David Kuehn, Philip Lorenz, Paul W. Chambers (auth.)
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Extra resources for Democratization and Civilian Control in Asia
Military organization The ﬁve decision-making areas of civil–military relations Conceptualizing Civilian Control of the Military 27 In addition, the elected authorities in a democracy must be able to decide on all relevant policy matters. Not all substantive policies, however, are of equal importance for the quality of democracy, and some degree of military autonomy is desirable as it allows the military to make use of its specialized expertise and to fulﬁll its mission. We have therefore further disaggregated decision-making areas according to their relevance for the working of democracy and their relationship to the military’s core function of protecting the state against the predations of others.
Most importantly, however, the nonmilitary security forces, law enforcement agencies, and national intelligence apparatus must be separate from the military (Stepan, 1988; Loveman, 1994; Dandeker, 2001). Civilian ability to effectively monitor the military’s internal security operations depends on the existence of a framework of norms, procedures, and agencies, such as regular audits of military personnel and judicial supervision of the military, and on the military’s acceptance of and cooperation with the oversight regime.
The seminal contributions on the consolidation of new democracies (and, for that matter, the ‘deconsolidation’ of established democracies) have been published by Juan J. Linz and Alfred Stepan (1996) and Wolfgang Merkel (1998). These authors agree that while the ‘transition’ to democracy entails the replacement of non-democratic by democratic institutions, the ‘consolidation’ of democracy involves the legitimization of these institutions and the internalization of the new regime’s behavioral norms (Linz & Stepan, 1996: 15; Merkel, 1998: 59–62; see also Diamond, 1999: 65).