By G Pilu; K H Nicolaides
content material: creation average perspectives for exam of the Fetus significant fearful method basic Sonograpic Anatomy Neural Tube Defects Hydrocephalus and Ventriculomegaly Holoprosenceophaly Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Dandy-Walker advanced Microcephaly Megalencephaly damaging Cerebral Lesions Choroid Plexus Cysts Vein of Galen Aneurysm Face common Sonographic Anatomy Orbital Defects Facial Cleft Micrognathia Cardiovascular procedure, P. Jeanty and G. Pilu evaluation of the Fetal middle Atrial Septal Defects Ventricular Septal Defects Atrioventicular Septal Defects Cardiosplenic Syndromes Univentricular middle Aortic Stenosis Coarctation and Tubular Hypoplasia of the Aorta Interrupted Aortic Arch Hypoplastic Left middle Syndrome Pulmonary Stenosis and Pulmonary Artesia Conotruncal Malformations Transposition of the good Arteries Double-Outlet correct Ventricle Tetralogy of Fallot Truncus Arteriosus Communis Ebstein's Anomaly and Tricuspid Valve Dysplasia Echogenic Foci Cardiac Dysrhythmias: untimely Contractions Cardiac Dysrhythmias: Tachyarrhymthias Cardiac Dysrhythmias: entire Atrioventricular Block Pulmonary Abnormalities Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of the Lung Diaphragmatic Hernia Pleural Effusions Sequestration of the Lungs Anterior belly Wall basic Sonographic Anatomy Exomphalos Gastroschisis physique Stalk Anomaly Bladder Exstrophy and Cloacal Exstrophy Gastrointestinal Tract basic Sonographic Anatomy Esophageal Atresia Duodenal Atresia Intestinal Obstruction Hirschsprung's disorder Meconium Peritonitis Hepatosplenomegaly Hepatic Calcifications stomach Cysts Kidneys and Urinary Tract basic Sonographic Anatomy Renal Agnesis childish Polycystic Kidney affliction (Potter variety I) Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney affliction (Potter variety II) Potter sort III Renal Dysplasia Obstructive Uropathies Skeleton, G. Pilu and R. Romero basic Sonographic Anatomy Skeletal Anomalies Osteochondrodysplasias Limb Deficiency or Congenital Amputations break up Hand and Foot Syndrome Clubhands Polydactyly Fetal Akinesia Deformation series (FADS) good points of Chromosomal Defects, okay. Nicolaides and R. Snijders Phenotypic Expression chance for Chromosomal Defects Fetal Tumors, I. Meizner creation Intracranial Tumors Tumors of the Face and Neck Tumors of the Thorax Tumors of the stomach and Retroperitoneum Tumors of the surface Hydrops Fetalis Small for Gestational Age Abnormalities of the amniotic fluid quantity Appendix I: danger of significant trisomies when it comes to maternal age and gestation Appendix II: Antenatal sonographic findings in skeletal dysplasias Appendix III: Fetal biometry at 14-40 weeks of gestation sites supplying beneficial info for prenatal prognosis Index.
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Extra info for Diagnosis of fetal abnormalities : the 18-23-week scan
Prognosis A trio v en tricu lar septal defects w ill usually be e n c o u n te re d eith er in fetuses w ith chrom osom al aberrations (50% o f cases are associated w ith aneuploidy, 60% being tn so m y 21, 25% trisom y 18) o r in fetuses w ith cardiosplenic syndrom es. In the form er cases, an atrioventricular septal defect is frequently fo u n d in association w ith extracardiac anom alies. In th e latter cases, m ultiple cardiac anom alies and abnorm al dis position o f the abdom inal organs are alm ost the rule.
Prognosis E ch o g en ic foci are usually o f n o pathological significance and, in m ore th an 90% o f cases, th ey resolve by th e th ird trim ester o f pregnancy. H o w ev e r, th ey are som etim es associated w ith cardiac defects and chrom osom al abnorm alities. F or isolated h y p e rech o g en ic foci, the risk for trisom y 21 m ay be three tim es the b ack g ro u n d m aternal age- and g estation-related risk (see A p p en d ix I). 44 C A R D IO V A S C U L A R SYSTEM CA RDIAC D Y SR H Y T H M IA S: PREM ATURE C O N T R A C T IO N S E cto p ic h eart beats are c o m m o n b u t they are abnorm al only w h e n th e y o cc u r at a fre q u en cy o f m o re th an o n e in ten beats.
C O A R C T A T IO N A N D TU BU LA R H YPO PLASIA OF THE AORTA C o arctatio n is a localized n arro w in g o f the ju x tad u c tal arch, m ost c o m m o n ly b etw een th e left subclavian artery and the ductus. C ardiac anom alies are present in 90% o f the cases and include aortic stenosis and insufficiency, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, transposition o f the great arteries, truncus and d o u b le -o u tle t right ventricle. N o n -card iac anom alies include diaphragm atic hernia, T u rn e r syndrom e b u t n o t N o o n a n syndrom e.