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By P. Skalle

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Jet impact force. Methods in group 1 require field tests. These tests are based on the theory that the drilling rate is proportional to bit weight if bottom hole cleaning is adequate. When this proportionality curve, shown in Figure 5-1, at some point starts deviating from its increasing trend, the minimum required bottom hole cleaning energy to avoid bit balling at that level Flow ROP WOB Increasing ROP ho In le cre hy as dr in au g l ic bo en tto m er gy of WOB is determined. WOB Figure 5-1: ROP vs.

The microscopic view is characterized by observing the flow behaviour as it develops inside the pipe, and thereby allowing us to observe from one position in the flow profile continuously, referred to as the Langrangian view. The macroscopic view or the Eularian view involves a control volume and keeping track of what is entering and what is leaving the control volume. 1 Head loss Before going to friction loss, we introduce an expression from the fluid mechanics course, and some useful definitions.

It has been found that for Bingham fluids the transition to turbulent flow is insufficiently determined by the Reynolds number. The Hedstrom number is related to the critical Reynolds number, below which the flow pattern is laminar, as shown in Figure 4-13. 58) Figure 4-13: Critical Reynolds number for Bingham plastic fluids. 4 Singularity losses Valves, bends, tees, pipe entrances, sudden expansions etc. have no length dimension and pressure loss through such restrictions are called singularity losses or minor losses.

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