Download Elementary Mathematics from a Higher Standpoint: Volume I: by Felix Klein (auth.) PDF

By Felix Klein (auth.)

​These 3 volumes represent the 1st entire English translation of Felix Klein’s seminal sequence “Elementarmathematik vom höheren Standpunkte aus”. “Complete” has a twofold which means right here: First, there now exists a translation of quantity III into English, whereas until eventually this day the one translation were into chinese language. moment, the English models of quantity I and II had passed over numerous, even extendedparts of the unique, whereas we now current a whole revised translation into sleek English.

The volumes, first released among 1902 and 1908, are lecture notes of classes that Klein provided to destiny arithmetic academics, understanding a brand new type of instructor education that remained legitimate and powerful until eventually this present day: Klein leads the scholars to achieve a extra finished and methodological perspective on tuition arithmetic. The volumes permit us to appreciate Klein’s far-reaching belief of elementarisation, of the “elementary from the next standpoint”, in its implementation for college mathematics.

This quantity I is dedicated to what Klein calls the 3 immense “A’s”: mathematics, algebra and research. they're offered and mentioned continuously including a size of geometric interpretation and visualisation - given his epistemological standpoint of arithmetic being dependent in house instinct. a very revealing instance for elementarisation is his bankruptcy at the transcendence of e and p, the place he succeeds in giving concise but good obtainable proofs for the transcendence of those numbers. it really is during this quantity that Klein makes his well-known assertion concerning the double discontinuity among arithmetic instructing at faculties and at universities – it used to be his significant goal to beat this discontinuity.

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Extra resources for Elementary Mathematics from a Higher Standpoint: Volume I: Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis

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Always possible. 2. Unique. 3. Associative law. 4. Commutative law. 5. Monotonic law. Notice, in connection with 5, that a < b means, now, that a lies to the left of b in the geometric representation, so that we have, for example 2 < 1, 3 < C2. 1. Negative Numbers 27 The chief point in the multiplication of positive and negative numbers is the rule of signs, that a . c/ D . a c/, and . c/. c c 0 /. Especially the latter rule: “Minus times minus gives plus” is often a dangerous stumbling block. We shall return presently to the conceptual significance of these rules; just now we shall combine them into a statement defining multiplication of a series of positive and negative numbers: The absolute value of a product is equal to the product of the absolute values of the factors; its sign is positive or negative according as an even or an odd number of factors is negative.

Whereas, before, the possibility of logical operation began only after the eleven fundamental laws had been set up, it can start earlier here, after the simpler ones 3. The Logical Foundations of Operations with Integers 15 have been selected. The boundary between intuition and logic is displaced in favour of the latter. Hermann Graßmann did pioneer work in this direction in his Lehrbuch der Arithmetik17 in 1861. As an example from it, I mention merely that the commutative law can be derived from the associative law by the aid of the principle of mathematical induction.

It seems to me that one must retain a remainder, albeit a minimum, of intuition. One must always tie a certain intuition, even in the most abstract formulation, with the symbols one uses in operations, in order to be able always to recognise the symbols again, even if one thinks only about the shape of the letters. c) Let us even assume that the proposed problem has been solved in a way free from objection, that the compatibility of the eleven fundamental laws has been On the foundations of logic and arithmetic.

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