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By Sir Hugh Fish (auth.), M. Munawar, G. Dixon, C. I. Mayfield, T. Reynoldson, M. H. Sadar (eds.)

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Additional info for Environmental Bioassay Techniques and their Application: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference held in Lancaster, England, 11–14 July 1988

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31: 456-467. Horning, W. B. & C. I. Weber, 1985. Short-term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms. EPA/600/4-85-014. , 162 pp. Kenaga, E. , 1978. Test organisms and methods useful for 20 early assessment if acute toxicity of chemicals. Envir. Sci. Techno!. 12: 1322-1329. , 1985. Ecological stress phenomena and holistic environmental ethics- a viewpoint. Int. J. envir. Stud. 27: 9-30. Macek, K. , 1982. Aquatic toxicology: anarchy or democracy?

Because of the urgent need to screen for the effects of thousands, even hundreds of thousands of compounds, we feel that we will need to rely, at least for the near-term, on information obtained by some of our traditional assays of acute toxicity. While our search for new and better approaches continues, we should not neglect those techniques which have been developed and found to be useful in the past. It should be remembered that single-species toxicity tests, multispecies (microcosms) tests and ecosystem-level simulations all have advantages and limitations (Neuhold, 1986).

In addition to duration and intensity of exposure, one must consider the dose-rate. A continuous exposure to 50 units for 4 days may not be equivalent to exposure to 100 units on every other day. If one expects that the dose rate will have a significant effect on predicting chronic effects from acute effects a dose-dose rate response should be developed (Fig. 3). , 1985). Because observed effects are a function of dose-rate as well as dose extrapolating from the results of acute toxicity tests to more chronic effects is often difficult.

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