By Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. Christian Streffer, J. Bücker, A. Cansier, D. Cansier, C. F. Gethmann, R. Guderian, G. Hanekamp, D. Henschler, G. Pöch, E. Rehbinder, O. Renn, M. Slesina, K. Wuttke (auth.), Friederike Wütscher (eds.)
The speedy development of the area inhabitants - approximately six-fold during the last hundred years - mixed with the emerging variety of technical installations specifically within the industrialized nations has bring about ever tighter and extra strained dwelling areas on our planet. simply because ofthe inevitable strategies oflife, guy used to be before everything an exploiter instead of a cautious preserver of our surroundings. Environmental know-how so as to preserve the surroundings has grown in simple terms within the previous few many years. Environmental criteria were outlined and restrict values were set principally guided, even though, by means of clinical and scientific information on unmarried exposures, whereas public opinion, nevertheless, now more and more demands astronger attention of the extra advanced events following mixed exposures. in addition, it grew to become out that environmental criteria, whereas unavoidably in keeping with medical facts, should also bear in mind moral, felony, fiscal, and sociological features. a role of such complexity can basically be handled correctly within the framework of an inter disciplinary group.
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Additional resources for Environmental Standards: Combined Exposures and Their Effects on Human Beings and Their Environment
This controversy also dominates the present debates on environmental policies. The ideas about nature facing each other in these debates 10 can be classed - at the price of considerable simplification - under two distinct positions going back to Plato, on the one hand, and to Aristotle, on the other. The platonic variant is characterized by the effort to describe nature as a whole, an all-embracing entity ofwhich human beings are just one part (the holistic view of nature). In the context of a 8 9 10 If one describes threshold phenomena as "natural" phenomena, one must not forget that even the establishment of a "natural" threshold is inconceivable without human input.
Generally speaking, it is limit values (and values approximate to limit values, such as trigger values and c1assification regulations) which should be preferred for combined effects. This is particularly true in the area of protection of occupational health as weIl as in the case of substances without a threshold value. In the case of known combined effects it is entirely possible, given the present level of scientific knowledge, to perform limited quantification. As for the rest, the regulator can assume the prescriptive model of dose-additive effects or else independent combined effects, so far as appropriate correction possibilities are made a proviso.
On the part of jurisprudence, one has to clarify at first if and to what extent the legal framework (the constitutional duty ofprotection and the legislation, relating to media and substances, ofhealth and environmental protection) demands consideration of combined effects in the assessment of substance risks, and if it calls for regulation on those effects. In the tradition of such legislation, but also due to the requirements of the economy of administration, the tendency seems to be to treat substances separately, even ifthere are some statutory limits and similar values taking into account combined effects.