By Richard Appleton
The 3rd version of a benchmark reference, Epilepsy in adolescence and early life has been thoroughly up-to-date to incorporate details at the most up-to-date pharmacological, substitute, and surgical remedies for epilepsy in teenagers and youngsters. proposing the data in a handy tabular structure, the publication reports the impression of epilepsy that develops in youth. It highlights the transition from adolescence to maturity and the influence this has at the administration of the sickness. Drawing on own event, the authors presents a pragmatic method of the analysis of a few of the motives of epilepsy, scientific and surgical administration, and while to refer the sufferer to an epilepsy professional or medical institution.
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Additional info for Epilepsy in Childhood and Adolescence
HIE is one of the ‘worst’ causes of infantile spasms. Hypoxic-ischaemic injury is likely to be the primary mechanism of damage in infants and young children subjected to non-accidental injury (often a shaking injury), through cerebral oedema and/or multiple shearing injuries throughout the brain. 72 This reflects the usual infratentorial (posterior fossa or brain-stem) siting of paediatric tumours, particularly in children under 6 years of age. However, in children with brain tumours, 10–20% may present initially with one or more seizures;73,74 these tumours are usually astrocytomas, primitive neuroepithelial tumours (PNETs) or dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumours (DNETs) and less commonly oligodendrogliomas or meningiomas.
Secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures also common in mesial form Normal or slow wave/spike and sharp wave over temporal lobes Autosomal dominant Carbamazepine; lamotrigine and topiramate may also be effective Seizures infrequent but 20% resistant to medication MRI of temporal lobes is normal Reflex epilepsies33, 46–48 There are a number of epilepsies that are triggered or induced by specific stimuli or situations, some of which may have a clear psychological component. g. g. reading). • • • • • • • Photosensitive epilepsy (flicker- or flash-induced and pattern-induced) Reading epilepsy Strartle epilepsy Musicogenic epilepsy Eating-induced epilepsy Immersion (hot or cold water)-induced epilepsy Mathematic or calculation-induced epilepsy Photosensitive epilepsy is the most common and most relevant, in terms of its age and onset and management implications.
58 AETIOLOGY OF EPILEPSY Figure 12 MRI scan (T2-weighted, axial image) of a 12-month-old boy with lissencephaly who presented with seizures from 7 subsequently demonstrated spastic quadriplegia, cortical visual impairment and almost no developmental progress (scan shows a smooth cerebral surface with minimal gyral formation and a thick cortical mantle).