By William L. Traxel
North American settlers ahead of Columbus
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Extra resources for Footprints of the Welsh Indians: Settlers in North America before 1492
It is not a happy story, but it can grip the beholder with intrigue and emotion. At times the Welsh Indians enjoyed tremendous success, but at their peaks they encountered enemies they could not overcome in the form of large and powerful Red Indian forces that devastated them and a tiny virus that decimated them. It was not my intention to write about the history of these people in an academic style and historians may fault what I say, but the facts are presented and I believe that what they have told me is true.
Today, the purest descendants of these people are the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. They are small with dark-skin and resemble Africans. 2 About 45,000 years ago another migration of people carrying the M-168 marker occurred. These people left Africa and entered the Levant (eastern Mediterranean area). They have been identified by a marker on their Y chromosome designated M-89. They were not the first people to leave Africa for the Levant. 3 The M-89 people had better methods of survival than those who preceded them; they hunted cooperatively and practiced a pattern of seasonal migrations in order to follow a food source.
8. 165. 9. Mallory, J. , In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, London, 1989. 7 Footprints of the Welsh Indians perhaps an earthquake (the North Anatolian fault runs directly through the area) so weakened the narrow land bridge separating the Sea of Marmara from the headwaters of the River Bosporus that the floodgates opened. At first only a trickle, but soon a torrent of salt water came rushing down into the freshwater lake carving a deep gorge in the floor of the Black Sea immediately to the north of the newly formed strait.