By Arthur H. Westing
This paintings offers the evolution of the conventional notion of "national defense" as army safeguard to also embody "environmental safeguard" after which inevitably additionally "social (societal) security", thence to be termed "comprehensive human security". It accomplishes this basically by means of providing 11
of the author's personal benchmark papers released among 1983 and 2010 (additionally offering bibliographic citations to an extra 36 of the author's similar guides in the course of that period). The paintings stresses the significance of transfrontier (regional) cooperation, and likewise acknowledges worldwide overpopulation
as a key obstacle to reaching finished human security.
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Extra resources for From Environmental to Comprehensive Security
4 Regional Political Security 37 The more amicable relationships being sought can presumably be fostered by a variety of supportive actions at national and sub-national levels (Dybern 1989; Westing 1988a). These supportive actions could be carried out, for example, by research institutes, schools, the mass media, professional associations, religious bodies, citizen groups, and even individuals. Moreover, the establishment or facilitation of regional interactions in the areas of commerce, science, sports, and tourism would all seem to be conducive to more amicable regional political relations—as presumably would cooperation in environmental protection and exploitation.
1988–1989). However, comfort can be drawn from the growing recognition of the problem within the international arena, both in its political sphere (Brundtland et al. 1987) and in its legal sphere (Singh 1988). The urgent need for ‘sustainable development’ is no longer an alien notion. 3 The Ecogeographical Region The term ‘region’ is in the present study used to denote a geographical area that is unified in an ecological sense, gaining its integrity from this cohesion. The concept of such an ecogeographical region is essentially that of an ecological system, or ecosystem; that is to say, a unit made up of living and non-living components of the environment that interact to form a life-support system.
A comparable example is provided by the Danube region (with its eight or so states), although to date an even less successful one in both legal and practical terms (Westing 1989c). , Gebremedhin 1989). Nonetheless, on a worldwide basis the situation is bad and getting worse (Brown et al. 1989; UNEP 1987; WRI et al. 1988–1989). However, comfort can be drawn from the growing recognition of the problem within the international arena, both in its political sphere (Brundtland et al. 1987) and in its legal sphere (Singh 1988).