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By Pietro Bortone

This can be the main finished historical past of the Greek prepositional approach ever released. it truly is set inside a vast typological context and examines interrelated syntactic, morphological, and semantic swap over 3 millennia. through together with, for the 1st time, Medieval and glossy Greek, Dr Bortone is ready to express how the alterations in which means of Greek prepositions keep on with a transparent and routine trend of colossal theoretical curiosity. the writer opens the publication by means of discussing the correct heritage concerns about the functionality, that means, and genesis of adpositions and circumstances. He then lines the improvement of prepositions and case markers in historic Greek (Homeric and classical, with insights from Linear B and reconstructed Indo-European); Hellenistic Greek, which he examines in general at the foundation of Biblical Greek; Medieval Greek, the least studied yet so much revealing section; and glossy Greek, during which he additionally considers the impression of the discovered culture and neighbouring languages. Written in an obtainable and non-specialist type, this publication will curiosity classical philologists, in addition to old linguists and theoretical linguists.

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G. she went [straight] up [the ladder]), as well as fulfilment of co-occurrence restrictions with the same verb (he put the cake in/inside/in the oven). Emonds (1985: 253–63) argued that such particles are prepositions, and Svenonius (2004: 18) also observes that they “share with adpositions all the characteristics which do not specifically refer to complements”. 31) a Šâƺå ôa âØâºßÆ [KŒåE] ‘(s)he put the books [there]’ b Šâƺå ôa âØâºßÆ [ðÜíø] ‘(s)he put the books [on top/up(stairs)]’ c Šâƺå ôa âØâºßÆ [óôcí ŒÆæÝŒºÆ] ‘(s)he put the books [‘at’ the chair]’ d Šâƺå ôa âØâºßÆ [ðÜíø óôcí ŒÆæÝŒºÆ] ‘(s)he put the books [‘on at’ the chair]’ The combination of a primarily intransitive and an obligatorily transitive preposition (ðÜíø óÝ) is therefore a compound preposition, another possible expansion of a PP.

En bla˚ bil ‘a blue car’) 24 Background to Greek prepositions We could therefore say that the Swedish definiteness marker here consists of three parts, an unbound one followed by two bound ones, which is what some wish to say about the case marker in constructions like Kî KåŁæHí åøæHí: Kî þ Hí þ Hí. It has been argued (Julien 2007b: 35–9) that the Swedish multiple definiteness exponents above can convey slightly different aspects of definiteness (specificity and inclusiveness) at different points in their sequence; the ancient Greek, Latin, or German, combinations of preposition þ case may also, in some instances, convey different specifications, such as location þ direction (if any): Classical Greek ðÆæÜþ GENITIVE ðÆæÜþ DATIVE ðÆæÜþ ACCUSATIVE ¼ ¼ ¼ from near at near to near ablative sense locative sense allative sense In Kracht’s (2002: 31) terminology, there is a modalizer and a localizer.

However, being historically a chain, it is to be expected that by the time the last type of meaning is developed, the first is being lost. This is indeed the case of Spanish, where a is no longer much used in its spatial meaning. 14 Background to Greek prepositions However, the traditionally accepted case-inflections of Latin or Greek declensions also carry multiple morphosyntactic features mapped onto a single morph: in addition to case, they mark gender, number, and originally (at least in part) animacy.

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