Download Grzimek’s Encyclopedia, Vol 2 - Protostomes by Michael Hutchins PDF

By Michael Hutchins

A few reviewers name "Grzimek's Animal existence Encyclopedia the easiest reference paintings on animals ever released. Others name it the legacy left to us via famed zoologist and animal lover, Bernhard Grzimek. the unique set, released in Germany within the overdue Nineteen Sixties, is across the world popular for its medical reporting, assurance and illustrations, and serves as a big element of reference for researchers and scholars learning the animal state. Thorough articles familiarize readers with animals came across all over the place at the globe, detailing their existence cycles, predators, nutrition platforms, total ecology and lots more and plenty extra. Thomson Gale proudly offers the 1st thoroughly revised and up-to-date model of this acclaimed set in 30 years. Staying precise to the unique medical pedigree, our new variations of "Grzimek's Animal existence Encyclopedia are bound to serve the desires of scholars at each educational point

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Extra info for Grzimek’s Encyclopedia, Vol 2 - Protostomes

Sample text

In contrast, many arthropods with very large, heavily yolked oocytes undergo a form of incomplete cleavage known as superficial cleavage, in which the incompletely divided daughter cells ultimately reside as a layer surrounding a shared yolk mass. This appears similar to the meroblastic cleavage seen in large yolky eggs of birds and reptiles, but true superficial cleavage in arthropods begins with multiple divisions of the nuclei prior to the division of the cytoplasm. Within these basic functional forms of cleavage, there are many variations in the specific spatial configurations and the extent of cell division.

Bilateral symmetry, triploblastic metazoans and the protostomes Although there are currently several different views regarding the details of metazoan phylogeny, all analyses make a clear differentiation between the lower and diploblastic anGrzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia Evolution and systematics imals on the one hand and the triploblastic animals on the other. Some time after the radiate phyla evolved, animals with bilateral symmetry (a body axis with a clear front end and back end) and a third germ layer (the mesoderm) appeared.

The inner endoderm layer will develop into the gut cavity and its derivatives, such as the stomach, intestine, and liver. Above the level of flatworms, all higher animals possess an additional mesodermal feature—a membrane-lined body cavity, or coelom. This feature is so important that these higher animals, which constitute more than 85% of animal species, are known collectively as coelomates. But the coelom forms in two very different ways, each of which corresponds generally with two very different sequences of basic embryonic events.

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