By Jann Hau, Steven J. Schapiro, Gerald L. Van Hoosier Jr.
The conservative nature of animal evolution makes animal types the precise device for studying approximately human biology. The instruction manual of Laboratory Animal technology, moment version: Animal versions, quantity II addresses the improvement and alertness of versions in numerous parts of biomedical study and info the standards used to settle on animal species and lines. This publication isn't really limited to laboratory animal types for the learn of human ailments. development at the starting place of the best-selling first version, the second one version comprises many new themes similar to animal types in skeletal sickness, xenotransplantation, and dental issues.
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Additional info for Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Second Edition: Animal Models, Volume II
The toxicity testing includes in general the following tests: Acute toxicity Acute eye irritation or corrosion Acute dermal irritation or corrosion Skin sensitization Repeated-dose toxicity Carcinogenicity Reproductive toxicity Neurotoxicity Genetic toxicity In addition, specific studies to elucidate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (toxicokinetics), characteristics and studies to demonstrate a possible mode of action and mechanism (toxicodynamics) are important elements in testing for the health assessment of chemicals.
However, the three new, alternative tests provide significant improvements in the number of animals used as compared with that for the traditional test. In addition, they all contain requirements that the OECD Guidance Document on Humane Endpoints should be followed, which should reduce the overall suffering of the animals used. Furthermore, the Fixed-Dose Procedure has an endpoint of toxicity rather than mortality and uses a sighting study to minimize the number of animals required; and the Up-and-Down Method has a stopping rule, which limits the number of animals in the test.
Normally, three dose levels and a control group (untreated or vehicle control; the group size is 20 pregnant animals for rats and mice and 12 for the rabbit) are used to establish a dose–effect relationship. The pregnant female rats are exposed at least during the period of organogenesis, that is, between day 6, when implantation occurs, and day 15. (The corresponding periods for mice and rabbits are days 6–15 and days 6–18, respectively). This period has been found to be the most sensitive to the induction of structural, anatomical malformations (the corresponding sensitive period for humans is between the 18th and 60th day of pregnancy).