By Saeid Mokhatab
Liquefied common gasoline (LNG) is a commercially beautiful part of the commodity that enables the effective dealing with and transportation of normal gasoline around the globe. The LNG undefined, utilizing applied sciences confirmed over many years of improvement, maintains to extend its markets, diversify its provide chains and bring up its proportion of the worldwide ordinary fuel alternate. The Handbook of Liquefied average Gas is a well timed ebook because the is at present constructing new huge resources of offer and the applied sciences have advanced in recent times to allow offshore infrastructure to enhance and deal with assets in additional distant and harsher environments. it's the basically e-book of its type, protecting the various features of the LNG provide chain from liquefaction to regasification through addressing the LNG industries' basics and markets, in addition to particular engineering and layout ideas. a distinct, well-documented, and forward-thinking paintings, this reference publication offers an amazing platform for scientists, engineers, and different execs curious about the LNG to realize a greater figuring out of the major uncomplicated and complex issues suitable to LNG initiatives in operation and/or in making plans and improvement.
- Highlights the advancements within the normal gasoline liquefaction industries and the demanding situations in assembly environmental rules
- Provides directions in using the total strength of LNG assets
- Offers advices on LNG plant layout and operation according to confirmed practices and layout experience
- Emphasizes know-how choice and innovation with specialize in a ''fit-for-purpose” layout
- Updates code and legislation, security, and safety requisites for LNG applications
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Additional info for Handbook of Liquefied Natural Gas
For the marginal Wobbe Index LNG, the weathering effect may result in off-specification natural gas product. Some regasification terminals are equipped with the capability of injecting either nitrogen or LPG to regulate the sendout gas heating value. In North America and the United Kingdom, the pipeline gas typically has a relatively low Btu value, and nitrogen dilution for lowering the Btu value is common. In Japan and most Asian LNG countries, where high Btu gas is desirable, propane can be injected into the gas pipeline to raise its calorific value.
Heavy-duty trucks, busses, refuse vehicles, and frequently operated fleet vehicles such as taxis are typical vehicles with great potential for LNG fueling. Compared to much more traditional CNG systems, LNG fuel has the advantages of high fuel efficiency, lower vehicle dead weight and longer runs because of its high density and low pressure. Centrifugal pumps ensure the delivery of LNG into vehicles engine with cleaner burning and higher efficiency than conventional engines. LCNG stations can use LNG to support the operation of existing CNG vehicles.
A typical AAV design configuration is shown in Figures 1-39 and 1-40. AAV consists of direct contact, long, vertical heat exchange tubes that facilitate downward air draft. This is due to the warmer and less dense air at the top being lighter than the cold denser air at the bottom. Ambient air vaporizers utilize air in a natural or forced draft vertical arrangement. Water condensation and melting ice can be collected and used as a source of service/potable water. To avoid dense ice buildup on the surface of the heat exchanger tubes, deicing or defrosting with a 4 to 8 hr cycle typically is required.