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Extra info for Hindi (London Oriental and African Language Library, Volume 12)

Sample text

The fricative occurs in English and Perso-Arabic borrowings: fəqət ‘only’ afət ‘calamity’ saf ‘clean’ fərvərī ‘February’ film ‘film’ In the subsequent discussion, the following convention for transcription has been followed: a. Since the occurrence of ֊, ْ and ‫ ׮‬in homorganic clusters is predictable, they are represented by the symbol n. b. Since there is a contrast between n and ‫ ׮‬in intervocalic position and n and ֊ in other than homorganic clusters, the symbols ‫ ׮‬and ֊ are used in those positions.

E. The borrowed sounds, q, x, ‫׹‬, f, z are transcribed as k, kh, g, ph, j, respectively. In some places, however, the free variation in pronunciation has been indicated to signal the occurrence of these sounds in educated speech. 3. Consonant Clusters A majority of initial and final consonant clusters occurs in borrowed lexical items from Sanskrit, and a significant number occurs in borrowings from Perso-Arabic and English. Consonant clusters indigenous to Hindi are few, since the phonological changes that occurred between the Old Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan periods, especially between the middle Indo-Aryan and New Indo-Aryan, resulted in wide-ranging cluster simplifications.

4. Pronunciation In general, there is a fairly regular correspondence between the script and the pronunciation. There are, however, some exceptions, which are described below. 1. The Inherent Vowel The Devanagari alphabet is syllabic in that every consonant symbol represents the consonant plus the inherent vowel ə; thus, the symbol k represents the consonant k plus the inherent vowel ə, or kə (see the chart of the Devanagari alphabet in Chapter 3). However, a word such as kla, is not pronounced kələ, rather, it is pronounced kəl.

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