By H. Randall Hepburn, Sarah E. Radloff
A multi-authored paintings at the uncomplicated biology of Asian honeybees, written by means of specialist experts within the box, this e-book highlights phylogeny, class, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, biogeography, genetics, body structure, pheromones, nesting, self-assembly methods, swarming, migration and absconding, replica, ecology, foraging and flight, dance languages, pollination, diseases/pests, colony defensiveness and traditional enemies, honeybee mites, and interspecific interactions. Comprehensively overlaying the commonly dispersed literature released in eu in addition to Asian-language journals and books, Honeybees of Asia offers an important beginning for destiny research.
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Additional resources for Honeybees of Asia
1989) and A. koschevnikovi (from Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia). An ichneumonid wasp, Exeristes roborator (Liu and Beckenbach 1992, misspelled as Excristes) was used as an out-group. This analysis did not recover the three main lineages. A. cerana was basal within the genus Apis, sister to a clade containing the other Apis species. The two dwarf bee species grouped together, but A. koschevnikovi appeared as a sister to the dwarf bees, rather than grouping with the other cavity nesters. Their phylogeny can be summarised as Exeristes (cerana (mellifera (dorsata (koschevnikovi (florea + andreniformis))))).
And, indeed, this proposition has recently been confirmed experimentally (cf. Chap. 19). The dance frequency of A. cerana in relation to foraging distance, however, was much lower compared to A. mellifera. He concluded that food communication by 2 Phylogeny of the Genus Apis 29 A. cerana was more precise at closer distances, and in his training experiments, Lindauer was not able to train A. cerana beyond 750 m while European A. mellifera have a normal flight radius of 3 km. Next, Lindauer studied the dance behaviour of A.
Perhaps most interestingly, the diversity of basal fossil species currently suggests a more western origin for the honeybees, with a subsequent invasion and rapid radiation across Asia, which resulted in the remarkable array of species and challenging forms we see today. References Aichholz R, Lorbeer E (1999) Investigation of combwax of honeybees with high-temperature gas chromatography and high-temperature gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry. I. High-temperature gas chromatography.