By Caroline O.N. Moser, World Bank
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Extra info for Household Responses to Poverty and Vulnerability: Confronting crisis in Cisne Dos, Guayaquil, Ecuador
The countries chosen for case studies vary in geographical location, historical experience of governance, resource base, economic development path, and per capita income. The one nondeveloping country chosen, Hungary, was included to identify strategies in a transition economy, but Angyalföld was largely excluded from the comparative analysis. The case study countries have in common a decade of economic difficulties in the 1980s when all endured high inflation and lower-than-average or declining per capita income.
Moreover, the education gap between men and women narrowed in Cisne Dos, though not in Chawama. In all four communities the education levels of household heads were clearly linked to income levels: the less education the household head had, the greater the likelihood that the household was below the poverty line. Among nonpoor households, male heads of household were better educated than female household heads. 31. In countries experiencing economic difficulties, cuts in public spending are often inevitable.
These women are forced by desperation to enter competitive, dead-end occupations with low pay and long hours. In all three communities in 1992 women working in the informal sector earned less than men, and the earnings gap was greater than in the formal sector. 22. Children have also joined the labor force, although their employment is more difficult to measure because it is often "hidden"intentionally, because of the stigma of keeping children out of school, or unintentionally, when children work in household enterprises.