By T. R. New
Chapter 1 Introducing Hymenoptera and their Conservation (pages 1–27):
Chapter 2 Alien Hymenoptera in Classical organic keep an eye on (pages 28–40):
Chapter three The Junction of organic keep watch over and Conservation: Conservation organic regulate and Cultural regulate (pages 41–50):
Chapter four brought Bees: Threats or merits? (pages 51–62):
Chapter five Social Wasps and Ants as extraterrestrial beings (pages 63–81):
Chapter 6 Pollinator Declines (pages 82–99):
Chapter 7 degrees of Conservation challenge and the Shortcomings of present perform (pages 100–137):
Chapter eight Habitat Parameters and Manipulation (pages 138–167):
Chapter nine Species Case Histories (pages 168–178):
Chapter 10 Assessing Conservation development and Priorities for the longer term (pages 179–190):
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Extra info for Hymenoptera and Conservation
Bias to intensive studies of hosts at single sites: large amounts of data but not allowing for possible major differences in parasitoid complex in different parts of host range and factors such as differing host availability and seasonal/phenological variations. Accumulated data are usually not quantitative, so that ‘regular’ associations are given same weight as unusual or ‘freak’ associations; there is a need to detect and de-emphasize the latter as ‘marginal’. Many parasitoid names published as records have uncertain status, for example through undetected synonymy and lack of knowledge of variation.
68), small groups of brood and workers can be successful propagules even when no queens are present (Aron 2001). Sociality is then sometimes linked with capability to dominate resources through large numbers of individuals, with substantial behavioural and ecological ﬂexibility facilitating spread. In several examples discussed by Chapman and Bourke (2001), sociality has conferred considerable advantages to invasive species and also contributed to the difﬁculties of suppressing or eradicating them.
However, the study endorsed other surveys in conﬁrming that such agents can spread into native habitats far from their original release sites. As another Hawaiian example, the largest native heteropteran bug, formerly common and widespread, is the Koa bug (Coleotichus blackburniae). In 1962, parasitoids (a tachinid ﬂy and the scelionid egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis) were released to control the alien pest green vegetable bug (Nezara viridula) despite laboratory trials showing that they could attack Coleotichus.