By Paul D. Griffiths, Martyn N.J. Paley, Elspeth H. Whitby
This reference offers an authoritative review of the position of ultrasonography and MR imaging applied sciences within the exam and evaluate of the important frightened approach of the fetus and neonate. Spanning developments in fetal ultrasound, in-utero MR, the imaging of the neonatal mind, and the research of standard and irregular mind improvement, this consultant paints a vibrant photograph of the usage and improvement of imaging applied sciences in sleek prenatal and pediatric drugs.
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Extra resources for Imaging the Central Nervous System of the Fetus and Neonate
In: Viniken PJ, ed. In: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 30, Amsterdam: North Holland, 1977:285–297. 6. Barkovich AJ, Simon E, Walsh CA. Callosal agenesis with cyst: a better understanding and new classiﬁcation. Neurology 2001; 56:220–227. 7. Barkovich AJ. Congenital malformations of the brain and skull. In: Barkovich AJ, ed. Pediatric Neuroimaging. New York: Raven Press, 1995:177–275. 8. Barkovich AJ, Kurniecky RI, Dobyns WB, et al. A classiﬁcation scheme for malformations of cortical development.
There is marked hydrocephalus (C). Note that the skull base is abnormally ﬂat (platybasia) but the size of the posterior fossa is normal. Figure 5. A child with severe developmental brain problems including rhombencephalosynapsis. T2-weighted images in the sagittal (A), axial (B) and coronal (C) planes shown no vermian structure at all, the two cerebellar hemispheres are fused directly. There is mild tonsillar descent. Supratentorially there is severe hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and a large posterior interhemispheric cyst.
Rostral Vermian Cortical Dysplasia This is a relatively recently described condition (13) in which there is defective foliation of the rostral vermis (and to a lesser extent onto the hemispheres) best seen on coronal images. Demaerel and colleagues described 15 patients who showed varying degrees of this abnormality on MR imaging, three of which also had supratentorial abnormalities of cortical formation as well. The clinical effects of this abnormality in isolation are uncertain at present. Developmental Abnormalities Associated with a Small Posterior Fossa A small bony posterior fossa is the characteristic ﬁnding of the Chiari 2 deformity, which is found invariably associated with open spine malformations such as myelomeningocele (Fig.