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By Christian Schaur

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For this reason and because of simplifications of the γ -procedure, the safety zone between working load and failure load is not constant depending on the system parameters like the load-bearing behavior of the joints. A comparison between failure loads determined by finite element analysis and the working loads according to the current design rules will be shown. The influence of the non-linear behavior of the connectors on the load-bearing behavior of the composite beams is important. It is shown that the decrease of load-bearing capacity is smaller than assumed by current code of practice.

Compared to the original formulation of the Saenz’s law, there are some differences in the model presented herein, namely the strength enhancement factor k due to confinement in order to take into account the increase of masonry resistance produced by the combined state of stress and the exponent z introduced instead of a numerical factor equal to 2, in order to obtain a more accurate reproduction of the softening branch of the σ −ε relationship. Both k and z have been found being basically dependent on both mechanical and geometrical properties of the masonry wall.

For example, in case of walls confined along the transverse direction x, the position εc,y = 0 can be made. Correspondingly, the following equations are obtained (Mandara & Scognamiglio 2003, Mandara & Palumbo 2004): for steel bars in elastic range, and: for steel bars in plastic range. Similarly, for columns or males confined in the x direction only, one may assume σc,y = 0 and the corresponding equations for steel bars in elastic range are: 50 whereas for yielded bars they become: For the application of the procedure, appropriate functions for Em,s and ν have to be assigned (Mandara & Mazzolani 1998).

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