By J. Anthony Paredes
Writing round a standard set of themes, Paredes and his colleagues survey American Indian groups nonetheless surviving within the southeastern usa a few 450 years after first touch with Europeans. regardless of concerted govt efforts within the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to take away them, dozens of groups that may be defined as "American Indian" live to tell the tale - from Virginia to Florida, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Louisiana bayous. even supposing many were studied ethnographically during the last century, this quantity is the 1st entire, scholarly paintings delivering co-ordinated descriptions of those southeastern Indian groups as they close to the shut of the 20 th century. North American Indians, even supposing a lot replaced, aren't a "vanishing race" yet are thriving - certainly, no matter if culturally conservative or nearly absolutely acculturated, it truly is of their very modernization that the Indian groups of the South such a lot dramatically show up their sturdy means for detailed patience. Contibutors contain - Helen C. Rountree, Sharlotte Neely, Patricia Barker Lerch, Wesley DuRant Tauchiray, Alice Bee Kasakoff, Gene Joseph Crediford, Harry A. Kersey, Jr., J. Anthony Paredes, John H. Peterson, Jr., Hiram F. Gregory and George Roth.
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Additional info for Indians of the southeastern United States in the late 20th century
Applicants must show family connections that the group in question recognizes. For most of the groups, this recognition is achieved informally through the memories of the elders. An exception is Gertrude Custalow, the church secretary on the Mattaponi Reservation, who is now keeping a genealogy of her people so that legitimate but distant relatives can be treated fairly. Literacy came late to most of the Virginia Indian groups and most of the crucial courthouses were burned, making documentation of family lines nearly impossible beyond a century and a half ago.
The Nansemond and the Upper Mattaponi have general tribal meetings every month with refreshments before and afterward; attendance is closed to the public except by invitation. Their council meetings are held separately once a month and can be attended by nonofficers only by invitation. The United Rappahannock have only quarterly council meetings, which are not open to tribal members or outsiders unless they have pertinent business to present. The Eastern Chickahominy have two general tribal meetings annually plus quarterly tribal council meetings, both of which are open to tribal members but not to outsiders unless invited.
Marvin Bradby, the Eastern Chickahominy chief, has been a member of the New Kent County Planning Commission since 1974 and chairman of it since 1982; Stephen Adkins, a Chickahominy member of the Council on Indians, has been on Charles City County's school board since 1974. Indians' relations with local school boards, however, are sometimes touchy, particularly over the always volatile issue of library and classroom books. Presentation of history, of course, is the delicate issue, and many of the history books that Virginia schoolchildren read are still heavily biased against Indians.