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Full grade *h/es- and zero grade * h,s- both produce in fuct, accord­ ing to phonological rules, es- in Greek, see below, L 322 § I and L 328 § I . Full (e-) grade Greek *h/es- lives on after the disappearance oflaryngeals be­ fore a vowel as es-, whereas the word-initial consonance of the zero grade Greek *h/s- developed with the help of a weak vowel via *h/os_ > *h/es- > also to es-. - This is not the case in Vedic and Italic, in which the full grade es- stands in clearly visible contrast to the zero grade s-: While the full grade "h/es- does resuh, parallel to Greek, in Vedic as- (on the intermediary grade *es-, see below, L 206) and the Latin es-, the zero grade *h/s- leads, in con­ trast, through simplification of the double consonance, from "h/s- to So.

In the case of equus, this means that from the standpoint of Latin one cannot know whether -qu- developed from *_kW_ or from *-liy-. Indo­ Iranian however, offers clear evidence in fuvor of * -liy-. - In the transition from Old to Classical Latin, one expects (according to phonetic rnles) to find, preceding endings with initial -0- or -u- the modified stem *ec- (having dropped its labial element); however, preceding endings that begin with -e-, -i-, or -a-, one expects to find the unmodified stem equ-.

92). Next to -enti, -anti is secondary, see below, § 1 1 . 3) The classical Latin paradigm is most easily understood if one uses the 3 sg. est and the 3 pI. sunt as a starting point. The verbal root reveals in both these fonns the Ablaut change expected from Vedic, from full grade, singular es- to zero gtade, plural so. 4) In contrast to the Vedic endings (3 sg. -I-i and 3 pI. -anl-l) the Latin endings (3 sg. -t and 3 pI. -ont) are missing the short final, unstressed i-vowels. While Vedic conserves these, they are eliminated in Latin: -+ Leumann LLFL 1977 p.

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