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By Ronald Parker, Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe

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Extra info for Informal settlements, environmental degradation, and disaster vulnerability: the Turkey case study, Volume 97

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The interpretations and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank or its member institutions. " IDNDR focuses on natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, landslides, avalanches, cyclones, floods, drought, and locust infestations. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Informal settlements, environmental degradation, and disaster vulnerability : Turkey case study / edited by Ronald Parker, Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe.

According to Jones (1992) Istanbul is the only city continuously among the largest ten in the world for 1,000 years except for a short period in the 15th century. The metropolitan area is an interesting combination of East and West with neighborhoods in both Asia and Europe and numerous world famous monuments. Its geographical location at the point where the only land route between Europe and Asia crosses the only sea route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean has always been of strategic and commercial importance and kept the city in the mainstream of history.

Dense settlement interrupts natural regenerative processes and destroys protective greenery and ground cover: ultimately the environment is degraded, usually severely. Environmental degradation increases disaster vulnerability, and every disaster has an additional negative environmental impact. These two compounded phenomenaenvironmental degradation and disaster vulnerabilitymake it more difficult to manage urban area sustainability. Disaster vulnerability in urban areas grows not only as a result of increasing population density, but also because of inappropriate technologies and inadequate infrastructure.

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