By Pedro Barbosa, Deborah K. Letourneau, Anurag A. Agrawal
The abundance of bugs can swap dramatically from new release to iteration; those generational alterations may perhaps happen inside a becoming season or over a interval of years. Such notable density alterations or "outbreaks" might be abrupt and ostensibly random, or inhabitants peaks might happen in a roughly cyclic type. they are often highly damaging whilst the insect is a crop pest or consists of illnesses of people, cattle, or natural world. wisdom of those kinds of inhabitants dynamics and computing device types that could support expect once they ensue are extremely important.
this crucial new e-book revisits a topic now not completely mentioned in this type of book given that 1988 and brings a world scale to the problem of insect outbreaks.
Insect Outbreaks Revisited is meant for senior undergraduate and graduate scholars in ecology, inhabitants biology and entomology, in addition to govt and scientists doing study on pests, land managers, pest administration body of workers, extension group of workers, conservation biologists and ecologists, and country, county and district foresters.Content:
Chapter 1 Insect Herbivore Outbreaks seen via a Physiological Framework: Insights from Orthoptera (pages 1–29): Spencer T. Behmer and Anthony Joern
Chapter 2 The Dynamical results of Interactions among Inducible Plant Resistance and meals difficulty in the course of Insect Outbreaks (pages 30–46): Karen C. Abbott
Chapter three Immune Responses and Their power function in Insect Outbreaks (pages 47–70): J. Gwen Shlichta and Angela M. Smilanich
Chapter four The function of Ecological Stoichiometry in Outbreaks of Insect Herbivores (pages 71–88): Eric M. Lind and Pedro Barbosa
Chapter five Plant?Induced Responses and Herbivore inhabitants Dynamics (pages 89–112): Andre Kessler, Katja Poveda and Erik H. Poelman
Chapter 6 Spatial Synchrony of Insect Outbreaks (pages 113–125): Andrew M. Liebhold, Kyle J. Haynes and Ottar N. Bjornstad
Chapter 7 What Tree?Ring Reconstruction Tells Us approximately Conifer Defoliator Outbreaks (pages 126–154): Ann M. Lynch
Chapter eight Insect?Associated Microorganisms and Their attainable function in Outbreaks (pages 155–174): Yasmin J. Cardoza, Richard W. Hofstetter and Fernando E. Vega
Chapter nine lifestyles background characteristics and Host Plant Use in Defoliators and Bark Beetles: Implications for inhabitants Dynamics (pages 175–196): Julia Koricheva, Maartje J. Klapwijk and Christer Bjorkman
Chapter 10 The Ecological results of Insect Outbreaks (pages 197–218): Louie H. Yang
Chapter eleven Insect Outbreaks in Tropical Forests: styles, Mechanisms, and results (pages 219–245): Lee A. Dyer, Walter P. Carson and Egbert G. Leigh
Chapter 12 Outbreaks and environment prone (pages 246–265): Timothy D. Schowalter
Chapter thirteen facts for Outbreaks from the Fossil list of Insect Herbivory (pages 267–290): Conrad C. Labandeira
Chapter 14 Implications of Host?Associated Differentiation within the keep an eye on of Pest Species (pages 291–310): Raul F. Medina
Chapter 15 mess ups by means of layout: Outbreaks alongside city Gradients (pages 311–340): Michael J. Raupp, Paula M. Shrewsbury and Dan A. Herms
Chapter sixteen Resistance to Transgenic plants and Pest Outbreaks (pages 341–354): Bruce E. Tabashnik and Yves Carriere
Chapter 17 common Enemies and bug Outbreaks in Agriculture: A panorama viewpoint (pages 355–370): J. Megan Woltz, Benjamin P. Werling and Douglas A. Landis
Chapter 18 built-in Pest administration – Outbreaks avoided, not on time, or Facilitated? (pages 371–394): Deborah ok. Letourneau
Chapter 19 Insect Invasions: classes from organic keep an eye on of Weeds (pages 395–428): Peter B. McEvoy, Fritzi S. Grevstad and Shon S. Schooler
Chapter 20 Assessing the effect of weather swap on Outbreak power (pages 429–450): Maartje J. Klapwijk, Matthew P. Ayres, Andrea Battisti and Stig Larsson
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Additional info for Insect Outbreaks Revisited
Several reasons explain why potentially compelling integrative models of insect outbreaks did not provide the predictive frameworks promised. While the models were general and meant to reflect generalized plant responses to nonoptimal conditions, each plant species, population, or genotype may respond to the same environmental stress in quantitatively different ways. Actual plant responses to stress were often not measured directly in many studies, so that ecologists could not accurately assess the nutritional environment actually encountered by herbivores.
In contrast, gregarious locusts are highly active and move great distances as both nymphs and adults over the course of a day, making it likely they will encounter a divergent range of food items and conspecifics. Under these conditions, they should take advantage of all food opportunities when possible. More broadly, the regulatory rules associated with imbalanced foods may be a function of diet breadth, such that specialists (even in gregarious forms) are error minimizers and generalists are nutrient maximizers (Behmer 2009).
Additional compensatory mechanisms are available to insect herbivores faced with ingesting large quantities of suboptimal food. For example, nutrient dilution is a common challenge for insect herbivores, and they can cope with this in two ways. First, they tend to greatly increase the amount of food they consume (Slansky and Wheeler 1991, 1992, Raubenheimer and Simpson 1993). Second, they can allocate more to gut tissues (Yang and Joern 1994a, Yang and Joern 1994b, Raubenheimer and Bassil 2007), serving two primary functions: (1) it allows a greater amount of food to be processed, and/or (2) it increases digestion efficiency because food can be retained for longer periods of time.