By L. F.; Willson, C. G.; and, Bowden, M. J Ed. By Thompson
content material: An advent to lithography / L.F. Thompson --
The lithographic procedure : the physics / L.F. Thompson and M.J. Bowden --
natural withstand fabrics : conception and chemistry / C. supply Willson --
withstand processing / L.F. Thompson and M.J. Bowden --
Plasma etching / J.A. Mucha and D.W. Hess --
Multi-layer face up to platforms / B.J. Lin.
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Additional resources for Introduction to Microlithography. Theory, Materials, and Processing
Greeneich and V a n Duzer attribute this to a lack of validity of the plural scattering theory for primary electrons at 5 k V . It is apparent from this figure that the developed contour depends on the beam energy raising the possibility that the contour can be tailored to a specific shape by proper choice of exposure parameters. This is demonstrated in Figure 33 for P M M A exposed at varying doses (53).
Other models have modified the C S D A approach to take account of the statistical nature of inelastic collisions. Given a finite step length, an incident electron can in principle suffer an amount of energy loss ranging from zero up to its initial energy at the beginning of the step. T h e Bethe stopping power for mula pertains only to the mean or average rate of energy loss with no account being taken of the statistical fluctuations i n the energy loss process. In practice, these refined models produce results which are not significantly different from the C S D A approach.
W e w i l l first examine the various exposure models which have been developed and then combine these with development studies in order to predict resist profiles and compare them with experiment. l Monte Carlo Methods. The M o n t e C a r l o method attempts to simulate via a digital computer the trajectories of the incident electrons within the resist/substrate system. This involves following the electron through a succession of distinct scattering events during which it undergoes angular deflection and energy loss.