By Larry F. Thompson
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Extra info for Introduction to Microlithography: Theory, Materials, and Processing (Acs Symposium Series)
Refractive lens systems typically use monochromatic light with wavelengths around 400 nm. Unfortunately, difficulties in the fabrication of refractive lenses for short wavelength appli cations have up until now, precluded these systems from consideration. The same is not true of reflecting optical systems or shadow printing techniques where resolution can in principle be increased quite simply by reducing the wavelength, provided that the aberrations are suitably low at the reduced wavelength.
In the case of a positive photoresist, this periodicity results in a variation i n the rate of development along the edges of a feature leading to contours i n the developed image as seen in Figure 24. T h e experimentally observed fringes correspond closely with those calculated by D i l l , Neureuther and others as shown in Figure 25. It is obvious that this fringe structure deteriorates resolution and represents a serious limitation for small features. This effect is further complicated since its severity is related to the reflectivity of the substrate (which can vary), resist thickness and optical density of the resist.
Elec trons, like photons, possess particle and wave properties; however, their wavelength is on the order of a few tenths of an angstrom, and therefore their resolution is not limited by diffraction considerations. Consequently the m i n i m u m linewidth that can be produced with electron beam exposure is much less than that achieved with photolithography. Resolution is limited, however, by forward scattering of the electrons i n the resist layer and backscattering from the underlying substrate as we shall now examine.