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2010, 4, 658–673. € (38) Ozdemir, E. ; Eltrop, L. Land substitution effects of biofuel side products and implications on the land area requirement for EU 2020 biofuel targets. Energy Policy 2009, 37, 2986–2996. (39) Impacts of the EU biofuel target onagricultural markets and land use: A comparative modelling assessment; EUR—Scientific and Technical Research series; Joint Research Centre—Eurpopean Commission: Luxembourg, 2010. (40) The Impact of a Minimum 10% Obligation for Biofuel Use in the EU-27 in 2020 on Agricultural Markets; Impact Assessment of the Renewable Energy Roadmap—March 2007; European Commission—Directorate General for Agriculture and Rural Development: Brussels, 2007.

Comparing environmental impacts of electricity, heat and fuel from energy crops: Evaluating biogas utilization pathways by the basket of benefit methodology. Eng. Life Sci. 2010, 10, 570–576. ; Singh, N. ; Ribeiro, F. ; Delgass, W. N. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2007, 104, 4828–4833. ; Moreira, J. R. Historical carbon budget of the brazilian ethanol program. Energy Policy 2009, 37, 4863–4873. (26) Wang, M. ; Arora, S. S. context. Energy Policy 2010. (27) EU DIRECTIVE 2009/28/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/ EC;2009.

And 60 TWh/year would be needed to power the Brazilian fleet (Figure 3). S. fleet and, in Brazil, 33 billion liters of ethanol and 23 TWh would be sufficient to operate the fleet for a one-year period. S. fleet comprised of 143 million hybrid and 86 million electric vehicles. In comparison, the proportional Brazilian fleet would be comprised of 20 million hybrid and 12 million electric vehicles. 1021/es2004667 |Environ. Sci. Technol. 2011, 45, 9498–9505 Environmental Science & Technology Figure 5. Relative global yield increase for selected crops normalized to 1961 values.

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