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Additional resources for Kurmanji Kurdish : a reference grammar with selected readings

Example text

The only forms that show changes in the stem vowel are the 3rd-person singular of the -a- and -o- stems, which change to -â(t) and -wâ(t) respectively. ’ Verbs with present stems in -e, of which there are many, keep the theme vowel unchanged throughout the conjugation, and in the 3rd-person singular nothing is added other than the inherent -t. E-STEMS ‫ﻢ‬I‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬dágařem ‫ﺖ‬íI‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬،‫*ﻰ‬I‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬dágařey(t) ‫ﺖ‬I‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬،‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕێ‬dágaře(t) ‫ﲔ‬I‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬dágařeyn ‫ﻦ‬C‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬dágařen ‫ﻦ‬C‫ دﻩﮔﻪڕ‬dágařen Like gaře- are all verbs with infinitives ending in -ân.

E. one agent affix cannot serve more than one verb. For example, in the phrase ‫ رووى )ـﺮد و ﮔـﻮﰏ‬rûy kird u gutî (‘he faced him and said’), the first agent affix, -y, serves only the verb rû-kird; the second verb, gut, must also have an agent affix, and since there is no preposed matter, the affix is on the end of the verb. 1 Prepositional phrases with pronominal complements present a special problem. 3 below. 1. The Ergative in South Sorani. In North Sorani the past tense of all transitive verbs is made on the ergative model with agent affixes as described above.

On the actual level the past tense is nân khwârdim, as in ‫ ¦ن ﺧﻮاردم‬nân khwârdim I ate bread. while on the figurative level the past tense is nânim khwârd, as in ‫ﻮﻩ ¦ﱎ ﺧﻮارد‬S‫ﺗﻪك ﺋ‬X Latak ewa nânim khwârd. I broke bread with you (I enjoyed your hospitality). North Sorani, with no such differentiation, expresses these two examples as 45 SORANI KURDISH mâłaká i Dârâm sûtâ and nânim khwârd in all situations (nân khwârdim is meaningless in North Sorani). 2. Pronouns as Logical Objects of Past Transitive Verbs.

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