By R.L. Trask
Key techniques in Language and Linguistics is an A-Z advisor to the most phrases and ideas utilized in the examine of language and linguistics. The ebook contains definitions of phrases utilized in grammatical research from phoneme to componential research; branches of linguistics from semantics to neurolinguistics; techniques utilized in learning language from discourse research to systemic linguistics; linguistic phenomena from code-switching to conversational implicature; and language forms from pidgin to plain language. every one access starts off with a short definition of the time period through a extra certain description. Entries hint the beginning of the concept that, point out the major linked contributors, supply a advisor to additional analyzing and are largely pass- referenced.
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Extra resources for Language and Linguistics: The Key Concepts
7. cohesion The presence in a discourse of explicit linguistic links which provide structure. Quite apart from the more general kinds of devices for providing structure to a discourse or text, which belong to the domain of coherence, there are some very explicit linguistic devices, often of a grammatical nature, which serve to provide connectedness and structure. Among these devices are anaphors like she, they, this and one another, temporal connectives like after and while, and logical connectives like but and therefore.
Here the reader naturally takes they as referring to the Egyptians and the Assyrians, and is flummoxed by the continuation. The second version is different: Some 5,000 years ago, the Egyptians and the Assyrians were carrying standards. These were poles topped with metal figures of animals or gods. This time the item these immediately makes it clear that it is the standards which are being referred to, and the continuation is smooth and effortless. Naturally, the proper use of cohesive devices has long been recognized as a fundamental aspect of good writing, but in recent years linguists have been turning their attention to the analysis of these devices.
But there are also more general devices for providing structure which are not explicitly grammatical in nature, and these other devices are examined under the rubric of coherence. Here is a simple example, taken from a newspaper article: After ten years of standardization, there should be a healthy UK market for used models. Curiously, there seems to be only one big second-hand PC dealer in London. The point of interest here is the word curiously, whose function is to relate the following sentence to the preceding one in a manner that is immediately obvious to the reader: given the content of the first sentence, the assertion made by the second one should seem surprising.